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The Daily Telegraph
SATURDAY, OCTOBER 6, 1888

Page 2

POLICE INTELLIGENCE

WORSHIP-STREET - EAST-END LODGING-HOUSES. - In the course of an assault case, in which the offence was committed at a common lodging-house, Mr. Montagu Williams remarked that his previous observations with reference to these lodging-houses had conveyed a wrong impression. A person had thought fit to assume that he (Mr. Williams) suggested their abolition. His sympathies were so entirely with the poor that he recognised the value of such houses to them, and had no thought of suggesting what was imputed to him. But from what had been revealed he believed a better supervision of them was necessary, and he hoped it would take place quickly.


Page 3

LONDON TRAGEDIES.
BERNER-STREET INQUEST.

The police are still busily engaged in their investigations respecting the Whitehall tragedy, and some progress has been made in following up the various clues to establish the identity of the remains. It is now thought that the miscreant who deposited the mutilated corpse in the basement archways of the new police buildings gained access thereto through an opening in the hoarding where a board had been removed. The corner in question is in Cannon-row, and at an obscure spot where, as stated, persons have been seen occasionally to enter the works. Detectives and police are still employed to watch the buildings, and inquiries are being diligently made in the vicinity. Yesterday morning Detective-Inspector Marshall proceeded to Guildford to bring back with him the remains of a woman's leg, which had been found near the railway at that place. It will be compared with the trunk and arm now lying in the mortuary at Millbank-street, so that the doctors may determine whether the limb in question belongs to the young woman's body. The leg has the appearance as if it had been partially boiled. Before returning to town in the evening Inspector Marshall instituted a careful inquiry at Guildford, in which he was aided by the local police, who will continue to prosecute the search.

The Central News say it is authorised to state that Sir Charles Warren has been making inquiries as to the practicability of employing trained bloodhounds for use in special cases in the streets of London, and, having ascertained that dogs can be procured that have been accustomed to work in a town, he is making immediate arrangements for their use in London.

A telegram from New York states: "The atrocious crimes committed in Whitechapel have aroused intense interest here. The following statement has been made by an English sailor named Dodge. He says he arrived in London form China on Aug. 13 by the steamship Glenorchy. He met at the Queen's Music-hall, Poplar, a Malay cook, named Alaska. The Malay said he had been robbed by women of bad character, and swore that unless he found them and recovered his money he would murder and mutilate every Whitechapel woman he met. He showed Dodge a double-edged knife which he always carried with him. He was about 5ft. 7in. in height, 180lb in weight, and apparently thirty-five years of age."

Yesterday afternoon at the Vestry Hall of St. George-in-the-East, Cable-street, Mr. Wynne E. Baxter, coroner for East Middlesex, resumed the inquiry concerning the death of the woman who was found early on Sunday last with her throat cut, in a yard adjoining the International Working Men's Club, Berner-street, Commercial-road East.

Dr. Phillips, surgeon of the H Division of police, being recalled, said: On the last occasion I was requested to make a re-examination of the body of the deceased, especially with regard to the palate, and I have since done so at the mortuary, along with Dr. Blackwell and Dr. Gordon Brown. I did not find any injury to, or absence of, any part of either the hard or the soft palate. The Coroner also desired me to examine the two handkerchiefs which were found on the deceased. I did not discover any blood on them, and I believe that the stains on the larger handkerchief are those of fruit. Neither on the hands nor about the body of the deceased did I find grapes, or connection with them. I am convinced that the deceased had not swallowed either the skin or seed of a grape within many hours of her death. I have stated that the neckerchief which she had on was not torn, but cut. The abrasion which I spoke of on the right side of the neck was only apparently an abrasion, for on washing it it was removed, and the skin found to be uninjured. The knife produced on the last occasion was delivered to me, properly secured, by a constable, and on examination I found it to be such a knife as is used in a chandler's shop, and is called a slicing knife. It has blood upon it, which has characteristics similar to the blood of a human being. It has been recently blunted, and its edge apparently turned by rubbing on a stone such as a kerbstone. It evidently was before a very sharp knife.

The Coroner: Is it such as knife as could have caused the injuries which were inflicted upon the deceased? - Such a knife could have produced the incision and injuries to the neck, but it is not such a weapon as I should have fixed upon as having caused the injuries in this case; and if my opinion as regards the position of the body is correct, the knife in question would become an improbable instrument as having caused the incision.

What is your idea as to the position the body was in when the crime was committed? - I have come to a conclusion as to the position of both the murderer and the victim, and I opine that the latter was seized by the shoulders and placed on the ground, and that the murderer was on her right side when he inflicted the cut. I am of opinion that the cut was made from the left to the right side of the deceased, and taking into account the position of the incision it is unlikely that such a long knife inflicted the wound in the neck.

The knife produced on the last occasion was not sharp pointed, was it? - No, it was rounded at the tip, which was about an inch across. The blade was wider at the base.

Was there anything to indicate that the cut on the neck of the deceased was made with a pointed knife? - Nothing.

Have you formed any opinion as to the manner in which the deceased's right hand became stained with blood? - It is a mystery. There were small oblong clots on the back of the hand. I may say that I am taking it as a fact that after death the hand always remained in the position in which I found it - across the body.

How long had the woman been dead when you arrived at the scene of the murder, do you think? - Within an hour she had been alive.

Would the injury take long to inflict? - Only a few seconds - it might be done in two seconds.

Does the presence of the cachous in the left hand indicate that the murder was committed very suddenly and without any struggle? - Some of the cachous were scattered about the yard.

The Foreman: Do you not think that the woman would have dropped the packet of cachous altogether if she had been thrown to the ground before the injuries were inflicted? - That is an inference which the jury would be perfectly entitled to draw.

The Coroner: I assume that the injuries were not self-inflicted? - I have seen several self-inflicted wounds more extensive than this one, but then they have not usually involved the carotid artery. In this case, as in some others, there seems to have been some knowledge where to cut the throat to cause a fatal result.

Is there any similarity between this case and Annie Chapman's case? - There is very great dissimilarity between the two. In Chapman's case the neck was severed all round down to the vertebral column, the vertebral bones being marked with two sharp cuts, and there had been an evident attempt to separate the bones.

From the position you assume the perpetrator to have been in, would he have been likely to get bloodstained? - Not necessarily, for the commencement of the wound and the injury to the vessels would be away from him, and the stream of blood - for stream it was - would be directed away from him, and towards the gutter in the yard.

Was there any appearance of an opiate or any smell of chloroform? - There was no perceptible trace of any anaesthetic or narcotic. The absence of noise is a difficult question under the circumstances of this case to account for, but it must not be taken for granted that there was not any noise. If there was an absence of noise I cannot account for it.

The Foreman: That means that the woman might cry out after the cut? - Not after the cut.

But why did she not cry out while she was being put on the ground? - She was in a yard, and in a locality where she might cry out very loudly and no notice be taken of her. It was possible for the woman to draw up her legs after the wound, but she could not have turned over. The wound was inflicted by drawing the knife across the throat. A short knife, such as a shoemaker's well-ground knife, would do the same thing. My reason for believing that deceased was injured when on the ground was partly on account of the absence of blood anywhere on the left side of the body and between it and the wall.

A Juror: Was there any trace of malt liquor in the stomach? - There was no trace.

Dr. Blackwell (who assisted in making the post-mortem examination) said: I can confirm Dr. Phillips as to the appearances at the mortuary. I may add that I removed the cachous from the left hand of the deceased, which was nearly open. The packet was lodged between the thumb and the first finger, and was partially hidden from view. It was I who spilt them in removing them from the hand. My impression is that the hand gradually relaxed while the woman was dying, she dying in a fainting condition from the loss of blood. I do not think that I made myself quite clear as to whether it was possible for this to have been a case of suicide. What I meant to say was that, taking all the facts into consideration, more especially the absence of any instrument in the hand, it was impossible to have been a suicide. I have myself seen many equally severe wounds self-inflicted. With respect to the knife which was found, I should like to say that I concur with Dr. Phillips in his opinion that, although it might possibly have inflicted the injury, it is an extremely unlikely instrument to have been used. It appears to me that a murderer, in using a round-pointed instrument, would seriously handicap himself, as he would be only able to use it in one particular way. I am told that slaughterers always use a sharp-pointed instrument.

The Coroner: No one has suggested that this crime was committed by a slaughterer. - Witness: I simply intended to point out the inconvenience that might arise from using a blunt-pointed weapon.

The Foreman: Did you notice any marks or bruises about the shoulders? - They were what we call pressure marks. At first they were very obscure, but subsequently they became very evident. They were not what are ordinarily called bruises; neither is there any abrasion. Each shoulder was about equally marked.

A Juror: How recently might the marks have been caused? - That is rather difficult to say.

Did you perceive any grapes near the body in the yard? - No.

Did you hear any person say that they had seen grapes there? - I did not.

Mr. Sven Ollsen deposed: I live at No. 23, Prince's-square, St. George's-in-the-East, and am clerk of the Swedish Church there. I have examined the body of the deceased at the mortuary. I have seen her before.

The Coroner: Often? - Yes.

For how many years? - Seventeen.

Was she a Swede? - Yes.

What was her name? - Her name was Elizabeth Stride, and she was the wife of John Thomas Stride, carpenter. Her maiden name was Elizabeth Gustafdotter. She was born at Torlands, near Gothenburg, on Nov. 27, 1843.

How do you get these facts? - From the register at our church.

Do you keep a register of all the members of your church? - Of course. We register those who come into this country bringing a certificate and desiring to be registered.

When was she registered? - Her registry is dated July 10, 1866, and she was then registered as an unmarried woman.

Was she married at your church? - No.

Then how do you know she was the wife of John Thomas Stride? - In the registry I find a memorandum, undated, in the handwriting of the Rev. Mr, Palmayer, in Swedish, that she was married to an Englishman named John Thos. Stride. This registry is a new one, and copied from an older book. I have seen the original, and it was written by Mr. Frost, our pastor, until two years ago. I know the Swedish hymn book produced, dated 1821. I gave it to the deceased.

When? - Last winter, I think.

Do you know when she was married to Stride? - I think it was in 1869.

Do you know when he died? - No. She told me about the time the Princess Alice went down that her husband was drowned in that vessel.

Was she in good circumstances then? - She was very poor.

Then she would have been glad of any assistance? - Yes.

Did you give her some? - I did about that time.

Do you remember that there was a subscription raised for the relatives of the sufferers by the Princess Alice? - No.

I can tell you that there was, and I can tell you another thing - that no person of the name of Stride made any application. If her story had been true, don't you think she would have applied? - I do not know.

Have you any schools connected with the Swedish Church? - No, not in London.

Did not ever hear that this woman had any children? - I do not remember.

Did you ever see her husband? - No.

Did your church ever assist her before her husband died? - Yes, I think so; just before he died.

Where has she been living lately? - I have nothing to show. Two years ago she gave her address as Devonshire-street, Commercial-road.

Did she then explain what she was doing? - She stated that she was doing a little work in sewing.

Could she speak English well? - Pretty well.

Do you know when she came to England? - I believe a little before the register was made, in 1866.

William Marshall, examined by the Coroner, said: I reside at No. 64, Berner-street, and am a labourer at an indigo warehouse. I have seen the body at the mortuary. I saw the deceased on Saturday night last.

Where? - In our street, three doors from my house, about a quarter to twelve o'clock. She was on the pavement, opposite No. 58, between Fairclough-street and Boyd-street.

What was she doing? - She was standing talking to a man.

How do you know this was the same woman? - I recognise her both by her face and dress. She did not then have a flower in her breast.

Were the man and woman whom you saw talking quietly? - They were talking together.

Can you describe the man at all? - There was no gas-lamp near. The nearest was at the corner, about twenty feet off. I did not see the face of the man distinctly.

Did you notice how he was dressed? - In a black cut-away coat and dark trousers.

Was he young or old? - Middle-aged he seemed to be.

Was he wearing a hat? - No, a cap.

What sort of a cap? - A round cap, with a small peak. It was something like what a sailor would wear.

What height was he? - About 5ft. 6in.

Was he thin or stout? - Rather stout.

Did he look well dressed? - Decently dressed.

What class of man did he appear to be? - I should say he was in business, and did nothing like hard work.

Not like a dock labourer? - No.

Nor a sailor? - No.

Nor a butcher? - No.

A clerk? - He had more the appearance of a clerk.

Is that the best suggestion you can make? - It is.

You did not see his face. Had he any whiskers? - I cannot say. I do not think he had.

Was he wearing gloves? - No.

Was he carrying a stick or umbrella in his hands? - He had nothing in his hands that I am aware of.

You are quite sure that the deceased is the woman you saw? - Quite. I did not take much notice whether she was carrying anything in her hands.

What first attracted your attention to the couple? - By their standing there for some time, and he was kissing her.

Did you overhear anything they said? - I heard him say, "You would say anything but your prayers."

Different people talk in a different tone and in a different way. Did his voice give you the idea of a clerk? - Yes, he was mild speaking.

Did he speak like an educated man? - I thought so. I did not hear them say anything more. They went away after that. I did not hear the woman say anything, but after the man made that observation she laughed. They went away down the street, towards Ellen-street. They would not then pass No. 40 (the club).

How was the woman dressed? - In a black jacket and skirt.

Was either the worse for drink? - No, I thought not.

When did you go indoors? - About twelve o'clock.

Did you hear anything more that night? - Not till I heard that the murder had taken place, just after one o'clock. While I was standing at my door, from half-past eleven to twelve, there was no rain at all. The deceased had on a small black bonnet. The couple were standing between my house and the club for about ten minutes.

Detective-Inspector Reid: Then they passed you? - Yes.

A Juror: Did you not see the man's face as he passed? - No; he was looking towards the woman, and had his arm round her neck. There is a gas lamp at the corner of Boyd-street. It was not closing time when they passed me.

James Brown: I live in Fairclough-street, and am a dock labourer. I have seen the body in the mortuary. I did not know deceased, but I saw her about a quarter to one on Sunday morning last.

The Coroner: Where were you? - I was going from my house to the chandler's shop at the corner of the Berner-street and Fairclough-street, to get some supper. I stayed there three or four minutes, and then went back home, when I saw a man and woman standing at the corner of the Board School. I was in the road just by the kerb, and they were near the wall.

Did you see enough to make you certain that the deceased was the woman? - I am almost certain.

Did you notice any flower in her dress? - No.

What were they doing? - He was standing with his arm against the wall; she was inclined towards his arm, facing him, and with her back to the wall.

Did you notice the man? - I saw that he had a long dark coat on.

An overcoat? - Yes; it seemed so.

Had he a hat or a cap on? - I cannot say.

You are sure it was not her dress that you chiefly noticed? - Yes. I saw nothing light in colour about either of them.

Was it raining at the time? - No. I went on.

Did you hear anything more? - When I had nearly finished my supper I heard screams of "Murder" and "Police." This was a quarter of an hour after I had got home. I did not look at any clock at the chandler's shop. I arrived home first at ten minutes past twelve o'clock, and I believe it was not raining then.

Did you notice the height of the man? - I should think he was 5ft. 7in.

Was he thin or stout? - He was of average build.

Did either of them seem the worse for drink? - No.

Did you notice whether either spoke with a foreign accent? - I did not notice any. When I heard screams I opened my window, but could not see anybody. The cries were of moving people going in the direction of Grove-street. Shortly afterwards I saw a policeman standing at the corner of Christian-street, and a man called him to Berner-street.

William Smith, 452 H Division: On Saturday last I went on duty at ten p.m. My beat was past Berner-street, and would take me twenty-five minutes or half an hour to go round. I was in Berner-street about half-past twelve or twenty-five minutes to one o'clock, and having gone round my beat, was at the Commercial-road corner of Berner-street again at one o'clock. I was not called. I saw a crowd outside the gates of No. 40, Berner-street. I heard no cries of "Police." When I came to the spot two constables had already arrived. The gates at the side of the club were not then closed. I do not remember that I passed any person on my way down. I saw that the woman was dead, and I went to the police-station for the ambulance, leaving the other constables in charge of the body. Dr. Blackwell's assistant arrived just as I was going away.

The Coroner: Had you noticed any man or woman in Berner-street when you were there before? - Yes, talking together.

Was the woman anything like the deceased? - Yes. I saw her face, and I think the body at the mortuary is that of the same woman.

Are you certain? - I feel certain. She stood on the pavement a few yards from where the body was found, but on the opposite side of the street.

Did you look at the man at all? - Yes.

What did you notice about him? - He had a parcel wrapped in a newspaper in his hand. The parcel was about 18in. long and 6in. to 8in. broad.

Did you notice his height? - He was about 5ft. 7in.

His hat? - He wore a dark felt deerstalker's hat.

Clothes? - His clothes were dark. The coat was a cutaway coat.

Did you overhear any conversation? - No.

Did they seem to be sober? - Yes, both.

Did you see the man's face? - He had no whiskers, but I did not notice him much. I should say he was twenty-eight years of age. He was of respectable appearance, but I could not state what he was. The woman had a flower in her breast. It rained very little after eleven o'clock. There were but few about in the bye streets. When I saw the body at the mortuary I recognised it at once.

Michael Kidney, the man with whom the deceased last lived, being recalled, stated: I recognise the Swedish hymn-book produced as one belonging to the deceased. She used to have it at my place. I found it in the next room to the one I occupy - in Mrs. Smith's room. Mrs Smith said deceased gave it to her when she left last Tuesday - not as a gift, but to take care of. When deceased and I lived together I put a padlock on the door when we left the house. I had the key, but deceased has got in and out when I have been away. I found she had been there during my absence on Wednesday of last week - the day after she left - and taken some things.

The Coroner: What made you think there was anything the matter with the roof of her mouth? - She told me so.

Have you ever examined it? - No.

Well, the doctors say there is nothing the matter with it? - Well, I only know what she told me.

Philip Krantz (who affirmed) deposed: I live at 40, Berner-street, and am editor of the Hebrew paper called "The Worker's Friend." I work in a room forming part of the printing office at the back of the International Working Men's Club. Last Saturday night I was in my room from nine o'clock until one of the members of the club came and told me that there was a woman lying in the yard.

Had you heard any sound up to that time? - No.

Any cry? - No.

Or scream? - No.

Or anything unusual? - No.

Was your window or door open? - No.

Supposing a woman had screamed, would you have heard it? - They were singing in the club, so I might not have heard. When I heard the alarm I went out and saw the deceased, but did not observe any stranger there.

Did you look to see if anybody was about - anybody who might have committed the murder? - I did look. I went out to the gates, and found that some members of the club had gone for the police.

Do you think it possible that any stranger escaped from the yard while you were there? - No, but he might have done so before I came. I was afterwards searched and examined at the club.

Constable Albert Collins, 12 H. R., stated that by order of the doctors, he, at half-past five o'clock on Sunday morning, washed away the blood caused by the murder.

Detective-Inspector Reid said: I received a telegram at 1.25 on Sunday morning last at Commercial-street Police-office. I at once proceeded to No. 40, Berner-street, where I saw several police officers, Drs. Phillips and Blackwell, and a number of residents in the yard and persons who had come there and been shut in by the police. At that time Drs. Phillips and Blackwell were examining the throat of the deceased. A thorough search was made by the police of the yard and the houses in it, but no trace could be found of any person who might have committed the murder. As soon as the search was over the whole of the persons who had come into the yard and the members of the club were interrogated, their names and addresses taken, their pockets searched by the police, and their clothes and hands examined by the doctors. The people were twenty-eight in number. Each was dealt with separately, and they properly accounted for themselves. The houses were inspected a second time and the occupants examined and their rooms searched. A loft close by was searched, but no trace could be found of the murderer. A description was taken of the body, and circulated by wire around the stations. Inquiries were made at the different houses in the street, but no person could be found who had heard screams or disturbance during the night. I examined the wall near where the body was found, but could detect no spots of blood. About half-past four the body was removed to the mortuary. Having given information of the murder to the coroner I returned to the yard and made another examination and found that the blood had been removed. It being daylight I searched the walls thoroughly, but could discover no marks of their having been scaled. I then went to the mortuary and took a description of the deceased and her clothing as follows: Aged forty-two; length 5ft. 2in; complexion pale; hair dark brown and curly; eyes light grey; front upper teeth gone. The deceased had on an old black skirt, dark-brown velvet body, a long black jacket trimmed with black fur, fastened on the right side, with a red rose backed by a maidenhair fern. She had two light serge petticoats, white stockings, white chemise with insertion, side-spring boots, and black crape bonnet. In her jacket pocket were two handkerchiefs, a thimble, and a piece of wool on a card. That description was circulated. Since then the police have made a house-to-house inquiry in the immediate neighbourhood, with the result that we have been able to produce the witnesses who have appeared before the Court. The investigation is still going on. Every endeavour is being made to arrest the assassin, but up to the present without success.

The inquiry was adjourned to Tuesday fortnight, at two o'clock.





TO THE EDITOR OF "THE DAILY TELEGRAPH."

SIR - In reading your report on Monday of the murder in Whitechapel I notice that the unfortunate woman, when seen by Constable Lamb, 252 H Division, was clutching some grapes in her right hand and sweets in her left. Is it not probable that the murderer bought the grapes for his victim? Supposing that to be so, is it not also probable that the grapes were purchased only a few minutes before the murder, and in the immediate neighbourhood? I would suggest a strict inquiry among the vendors of fruit in that locality. - Yours truly,

R. E. LAWFORD WEBB.

Bedford Hotel, Bognor, Sussex, Oct. 4.




TO THE EDITOR OF "THE DAILY TELEGRAPH."

DEAR SIR - Would you kindly give room in your columns for a few remarks in reference to a paragraph in your paper of Tuesday last, respecting a statement made by cabmen. They are reported to have said that a very suspicious-looking man called at one of the cabmen's shelters on Sunday afternoon, and asked if they would cook him a chop, which they did. While it was being prepared they conversed with the stranger about the Whitechapel murders. Then the stranger remarked, "Don't you know who did it? I am the man," and so on. He produced a brandy-bottle, asking them to drink with him. The cabmen said they were all teetotalers. According to their report, they asked him to sign the pledge, which he did. I should like to know through your columns if the writing on the letter and post-card has been compared with the pledge-paper. If it in any way corresponds, the cabmen would be useful instruments in identifying the man, supposing him to be the murderer. - Yours obediently.

E. R. B. C.

Brockley, Oct. 4.





TO THE EDITOR OF "THE DAILY TELEGRAPH."

SIR - I trust you will allow me space in your columns to make a protest against the unjust and preposterous statement made by your correspondent "Observer" in to-day's issue. He declares that the letter supposed to have been written by the Whitechapel murderer is "an exact reprint of the Texas rough's style." Now I take the liberty of doubting whether "Observer" has had better opportunities of studying the genus "Texas rough" than I have. I have ridden up the "trail" (any Western man will know what that means), and have spent the last three years in railway camps, where the "Texas rough" pure and simple abounds, and I venture to say that the ghastly "sang froid" which the perpetrator of these murders has proved himself to possess is utterly contrary to the character of the "Texas rough." Beyond being addicted to an over-indulgence in bad whisky and an unpleasant readiness with his six-shooter, the Texan has none of the qualifications which are indispensable to the stealthy assassin.

With regard to the series of murders which occurred in Austin, Texas, some three years ago, the motive was without doubt "outrage and robbery," the victims being invariably killed afterwards with an axe, hammer, or some other weighty weapon, mutilation in the Whitechapel sense being completely absent. - Yours obediently,

ANGLO-TEXAN.

London, Oct. 5.





TO THE EDITOR OF "THE DAILY TELEGRAPH."

SIR - As certain of your correspondents think it would be useless to put the bloodhounds on the murderer's track some time after, as the scent would be destroyed by the number of people crossing in the streets, I would suggest that a bloodhound should be kept at some of the police stations in Whitechapel, and if another murder is committed the animal should be sent for immediately, and it would soon find the murderer's whereabouts, as the scent would be fresh and strong. The hound should be sent for as urgent as a fire engine. - Hoping something will be done to unearth the monster, I remain, yours obediently,

H. J. CUSHING.

London, Oct. 5.





TO THE EDITOR OF "THE DAILY TELEGRAPH."

SIR - The horrible revelations in connection with the Whitechapel murders have cast a lurid light upon some of the sadder aspects of the East-end life of our great city. Are these to fade into oblivion so soon as the momentary excitement shall have subsided, or is there to be any practical outcome? "Sweating" and "slumming" have been but evanescent crazes. Is there not here and now a distinct and definite opportunity to hurl back the charges of want of sympathy and "touch" on the part of the pulpit with these darker shadows of the sin and suffering with which we are encompassed and confronted? Many suggestions have been made, none more practical than that of a great central night shelter for the penniless and the abandoned, a friendly aisle which will preclude the possibility of the dread alternative between an all-night wandering over the stony streets or a brief rest in the horrid den of a common lodging-house procured by the wretched "wages of sin."

I shall be happy to hear from any London ministers who may be willing to co-operate in the institution of such a plan. - I am, Sir, faithfully yours,

GEORGE H. GIDDINE.

Syivan Villa, Woodford.





TO THE EDITOR OF "THE DAILY TELEGRAPH."

SIR - I would suggest a system of patrol by police in plain clothes, say, from eleven at night till five in the morning. This system was introduced during the time I was in the Montreal Police Force. I can assure you the patrol was a terror to evil doers, and also a great assistance to constables on their beat, coming to their assistance in many cases unexpectedly. The law-breakers were always in dread, never knowing when the patrol would drop on them. - I am, Sir, yours respectfully,

EX-CONSTABLE C. BADDELBY.

Pimlico, S. W., Oct. 5.





TO THE EDITOR OF "THE DAILY TELEGRAPH."

SIR - The letter and post-card of the murderer are thought by many to be merely the ill-timed and senseless act of some low caste man bent on a stupid hoax; but I am inclined to consider they come from the murderer himself. There is much character in them, several American expressions, the handwriting of a firm and demined man, still young. Then the threat on Sept. 25 of the "double event," which was fatally carried out on the 30th, and which no one in London could foresee but himself. Drunk with success he could not help issuing some boasts of his hideous and unnatural skill. The idea of publishing fac-similes of his handwriting in The Daily Telegraph was a most excellent one, and may yet lead to important results. We may suppose his vocation requires writing more or less often, and surely there must be several persons in London who know his penmanship. Will nobody come forward to announce his knowledge or suspicions? By degrees it is to be hoped the "Ripper" may be traced before further crimes are committed. I do not think it at all likely there are accomplices. The motive is either revenge or monomania. No one would join in a course of crime, dangerous, barbarous to the last degree, and with scarce a prospect of pecuniary or any other advantage. - Your obedient servant,

H. Y. P.

Bayswater, Oct. 5.





TO THE EDITOR OF "THE DAILY TELEGRAPH."

SIR - Just a line to point out that the two letters signed "Jack the Ripper" could only have been written by an American, or by one who had resided "across the herring pond" long enough to have thoroughly mastered the Yankee language. Surely this fact, taken in conjunction with the coroner's remarks, and that nothing has been heard from the American said to have offered £20 for the parts taken, would point to American agency in the matter. - I am, Sir, your obedient servant,

F. SCHAFFTER.

Hague, Oct. 4.





TO THE EDITOR OF "THE DAILY TELEGRAPH."

SIR - Your correspondent "E. R. L." will be pleased to hear that such a movement as he speaks of has been started to provide shelters for those poor creatures wandering about our streets. In Paris shelters are provided and maintained at the cost of the municipality, and have answered the purpose in every respect. No one need to be shelterless there during the night. I hope to have one of these shelters opened in the East-end of London during the present month; the difficulty is to provide a fund to permanently maintain them. Be it remembered that in London alone there are upwards of 15,000 homeless and shelterless wanderers through its streets every night in the year. It is a cruel fact. - Yours, &c.,

SAML. HAYWARD, C. E.

212, Devonshire-road, Forest-hill, S. E., Oct. 5.





SKETCH PORTRAITS OF THE SUPPOSED MURDERER.
[Two sketches]

The next portion of this issue's report from "The above sketches…" to "…for rain was falling at the time." is reproduced in "News from Whitechapel" pages 124 - 126. Immediately following that on from that portion, the Telegraph reported:

It is a remarkable circumstance - much more than an ordinary coincidence - that the description of the supposed murderer given by Packer was yesterday confirmed by another man who, without being aware of the fact, also chose from the sketches the one which had been already selected by Packer. Search for an individual answering to the description above detailed, but having a small moustache and wearing a black deerstalker felt hat, instead of a soft one, has been made by the police in Whitechapel ever since Saturday, Sept. 1, the day following the Buck's-row tragedy. Information was tendered at the King David's-lane Police Station, at about that time, by a dairyman who has a place of business in Little Turner-street, Commercial-road. It will be recollected that on Saturday, Sept. 1, a desperate assault was reported to have been committed near to the music-hall in Cambridge-heath-road, a man having seized a woman by the throat and dragged her down a court, where he was joined by a gang, one of whom laid a knife across the woman's throat, remarking "we will serve you as we did the others." The particulars of this affair were subsequently stated to be untrue; but the milkman has reason to suppose that the outrage was actually perpetrated, and he suspects that the murderer of Mary Ann Nicholls in Buck's-row had something to do with it. At any rate, upon that Saturday night, at five minutes to eleven o'clock, a man corresponding with the description given by Packer of the individual who purchased the grapes in Berner-street, called at the shop, which is on the left of a covered yard, usually occupied by barrows, which are let out on hire. He was in a hurry, and he asked for a pennyworth of milk, with which he was served, and he drank it down at a gulp. Asking permission to go into the yard or shed, he went there, but the dairyman caught a glimpse of something white, and, having suspicions, he rejoined the man in the shed, and was surprised to observe that he had covered up his trousers with a pair of white over-alls, such as engineers wear. The man had a staring look, and appeared greatly agitated. He made a movement forward, and the brim of his hard felt hat struck the dairyman, who is therefore sure of the kind that he was wearing. In a hurried manner the stranger took out of a black shiny bag, which was on the ground, a white jacket and rapidly put it on, completely hiding his cutaway black coat, remarking meanwhile, "It's a dreadful murder, isn't it?" although the subject had not been previously mentioned. Without making a pause the suspicious person caught up his bag, which was still open, and rushed into the street, towards Shadwell, saying, "I think I've got a clue!" The matter was reported to the police, and although strict watch has been maintained for the reappearance of the man he has not been seen in the street since. He is said to have had a dark complexion, such as a seafaring man acquires. The style of collar that he was then wearing was of the turn-down pattern. He had no marked American accent, and his general appearance was that of a clerk or student whose beard had been allowed three days' growth. His hair was dark, and his eyes large and staring. The portrait gives, according to the statement of the witness, a good approximate idea of his look. The bag carried by the young man, whose age the dairyman places at twenty-eight, is stated to have been provided with a lock at the top, near the handle, and was made, as stated, of a black glistening material.

Immediately following on from the above, the next portion of this issue's report from "In connection with…" to "…the morning of the murder in Berner-street." is reproduced in "News from Whitechapel" page 126. Immediately following that portion the Telegraph reported:

Albert Bachert, of 13, Newnham-street, Whitechapel, has also stated: "On Saturday night at about seven minutes to twelve I entered the Three Nuns Hotel, Aldgate. While in there an elderly woman, very shabbily dressed, came in and asked me to buy some matches. I refused, and she went out. A man who had been standing by me remarked that those persons were a nuisance, to which I responded 'Yes.' He then asked me to have a glass with him, but I refused, as I had just called for one myself. He then asked me if I knew how old some of the women were who were in the habit of soliciting outside. I replied that I knew or thought that some of them who looked about 25 were over 35, the reason they looked younger being on account of the powder and paint. He asked me if I could tell him where they usually visited, and I replied that I had heard that some went to places in Oxford-street, Whitechapel, others to some houses in Whitechapel-road, and others to Bishopsgate-street. Having asked other questions about their habits, he went outside and spoke to the woman who was selling matches, and gave her something, I believe. He returned to me, and I bid him good-night at about ten minutes past twelve. I believe the woman was waiting for him. I do not think I could identify the woman, as I did not take particular notice of her, but I should know the man again. He was a dark man, height about 5ft. 6in. or 7in. He wore a black felt hat, dark clothes, morning coat, black tie, and carried a black shiny bag."

There is one striking point in Bachert's narration. His interrogator appears to have asked him particularly about the age of the women outside. Hitherto it has been singular that none of the victims were young women, all of them having been over forty years of age. With respect to the age of their assailant the witnesses differ, but the police in connection with the Berner-street tragedy circulate the following description of a man "wanted," as having been seen in the company of the deceased during the Saturday evening: "Age twenty-eight; slight; height 5ft. 8in.; complexion dark; no whiskers; black diagonal coat, hard felt hat; collar and tie; carried newspaper parcel; respectable appearance." The age, twenty-eight, herein named, is favoured by two witnesses, whilst Bachert thinks he was a little older, and, assuming that the same man was also seen by Mrs. Long, who gave evidence at the Hanbury-street inquest, he must have been forty. In the interval he may have taken pains to alter his personal appearance by shaving, so as to elude detection. Mrs. Long is the person who saw Annie Chapman in Hanbury-street shortly before her death, and at that time, 5.30 a.m. on Sept. 8, she was talking to a dark man, who was wearing a "brown low-crowned felt hat, and who had the appearance of a 'shabby genteel' foreigner." A thoroughly practical suggestion has been made for the Scotland-yard authorities to adopt. In their possession at Whitehall they have some thousands of photographs of criminals, with full particulars concerning their convictions. These are kept bound in registers, which can be consulted easily. If the witnesses who are believed to have seen the Whitechapel murderer were permitted to examine these records one or other of them might possibly find a face which would serve to identify the suspect, and, if not, the fact might be presumptively established that the detectives need not look for the man in the ranks of recognised criminals.

At the Guildhall Police-court yesterday, William Bull, 27, describing himself as a medical student, of 6, Stannard-road, Dalston, was charged, on remand, before Mr. Alderman Stone, on his own confession, with committing the murder in Mitre-square, Aldgate, on Sunday morning last. The accused was very drunk at the time he made this "confession." - Inquiries had been made, and it was ascertained that the accused was very well connected, but he was not a medical student, neither was he, according to his father's statement, out on Saturday evening. Yesterday Inspector Izzard said that the inquiries had led to the most satisfactory conclusion. Defendant bore an irreproachable character, and he had been in his situation for a long time. - Mr. Alderman Stone observed that he was very sorry he was unable to punish the prisoner in some way, as it was a most dangerous thing, now that these scares were about, for people to make such foolish statements. He thought Bull ought to be thoroughly ashamed of himself for his conduct. He would now be discharged. - Prisoner said that since he had been locked up he had signed the pledge.

George Payne, 42, who described himself as a labourer, and who spoke with a provincial dialect, was charged at Marylebone Police-court, yesterday, with being found drunk in the street. - Detective-sergeant Gurtner, F Division, said he received information about eleven o'clock on Thursday night that a man in the Harrow-road had been heard to say that he had committed half-a-dozen murders in the East-end of London, and now he had come to the West-end to commit half-a-dozen more. He had also made defiant remarks about the Home Secretary. Witness went after the man, whom he found to be drunk, and having questioned him took him into custody. There was great excitement in the neighbourhood. - Mr. Geo. Nash, the landlord of a beer-house, No. 51, Harrow-road, said the accused entered his house and was supplied with half a pint of beer. At that time he appeared to be all right, but after a time the effect of drink was perceptible. The prisoner said he knew Mr. John Morley and the Home Secretary would like to get hold of him, but he was too clever for them. He had done five or six murders in Whitechapel, and now he thought he would come to the West-end. Witness thought that even if what the man had said were not true he ought not to escape punishment for making the statement. Mr. De Rutzen: Was he drunk? - Witness: I did not think he was when he came in. Mr. De Rutzen: You should be a judge? - Witness: Well, the prisoner is a curious sort of a man to judge of. - Barrett (assistant-gaoler) said the prisoner was charged at this court on Monday, and on the following day he was fined 31s. - The prisoner declared that he had not insulted any one, and he appealed to the public at the rear of the court if he had insulted them. He lived at Whitechapel years ago, but had not been there since. Mr. De Rutzen told him he was one of those mischievous fellows who go about and terrify people by boasting that they had done some horrible crime in the East-end. He would have to pay a fine of 10s., or go to prison for seven days. - The prisoner: "Boasting," eh?


Page 4

Yesterday, at the resumed inquest respecting the death of the woman who was found murdered in Berner-street on Sunday morning, Dr. Phillips, divisional surgeon, entered into a minute statement of the result of his examination of the body, and Dr. Blackwell, who assisted in the autopsy, gave confirmatory evidence. The clerk of the Swedish Church in St. George's-in-the-East identified the deceased as the wife of the late John Thomas Stride; her maiden name was Elizabeth Gustafdotter, and she was born near Gothenburg in 1843. Two labourers living in the neighbourhood deposed that about midnight preceding the murder they saw the deceased talking with a man who wore a black coat. The constable who was on duty on the beat stated that at half-past twelve or twenty-five minutes to one on Sunday morning he was in Berner-street, and noticed a woman, whom he believed to be the deceased, talking with a man. At one o'clock, when he returned, the crime had been committed. The man was dressed in dark clothes, and carried a parcel about eighteen inches in length. Other witnesses having been called, the inquiry was adjourned.

William Bull, the young man who, in a state of drunkenness, confessed that he had committed the Mitre-square murder, was brought up at Guildhall yesterday. He now repudiated the confession, and the inquiries of the police satisfactorily showed that he could have had no connection with the crime. On being discharged he informed the Alderman that since he had been locked up he had signed the pledge.

In connection with the recent discovery of the dismembered trunk of a female in the new police buildings on the Embankment, Detective-inspector Marshall yesterday proceeded to Guildford, and brought back a woman's leg which had been picked up near the railway station there. It is expected that the medical men will to-day be able to determine whether the recovered limb belongs to the body found on the Embankment.


Related pages:
  Albert Bachert
       Dissertations: Albert Bachert 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 1 October 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Advertiser - 11 March 1893 
       Press Reports: East London Advertiser - 14 September 1889 
       Press Reports: East London Advertiser - 19 October 1889 
       Press Reports: East London Observer - 20 August 1887 
       Press Reports: Eastern Post - 20 August 1887 
       Press Reports: Eastern Post - 21 September 1889 
       Press Reports: Echo - 1 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 2 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 2 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 6 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Freemans Journal and Daily Commercial Advertiser - 2 Octo... 
       Press Reports: Illustrated Police News - 6 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 2 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 20 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 20 November 1888 
       Press Reports: North Eastern Daily Gazette - 1 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Ogden Standard - 14 October 1890 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 01 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Penny Illustrated Paper - 20 July 1889 
       Press Reports: Port Philip Herald - 22 November 1890 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 1 December 1887 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 1 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 16 February 1891 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 18 January 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 19 November 1891 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 2 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 20 September 1887 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 5 December 1889 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 8 March 1893 
       Press Reports: Walthamstow and Leyton Guardian - 24 November 1888 
       Ripper Media: Jack the Ripper: A Cast of Thousands - Albert Backert 
  Dodge
       Press Reports: Chicago Tribune - 6 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 8 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 6 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 5 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 6 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 8 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 06 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 08 October 1888 
       Press Reports: People - 7 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 6 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 8 October 1888 
  Elizabeth Stride
       Home: Timeline - Elizabeth Stride 
       Dissertations: Anything But Your Prayers: Victims and Witnesses on the N... 
       Dissertations: Blackwells Testimony – An Estimation of How Stride Was Ly... 
       Dissertations: Double Trouble: Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes 
       Dissertations: Elisabeth Gustafsdotters Last Stride 
       Dissertations: Elizabeth Stride: Her Killer and Time of Death 
       Dissertations: Piecing it Together - A Possible Scenario of the Death of... 
       Dissertations: Reinvestigating Murder: How Did Long Liz Die? 
       Dissertations: Reinvestigating Murder: The Mystery of the Knife 
       Dissertations: So Long, Liz: Was Elizabeth Stride a True Ripper Victim? 
       Dissertations: The Identification of Liz Stride 
       Message Boards: Elizabeth Stride 
       Official Documents: Berner Street - Census Listings 
       Official Documents: Elizabeth Stride's Inquest 
       Press Reports: Alderley and Wilmslow Advertiser - 26 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Atchison Daily Globe - 3 October 1888 
       Press Reports: British Daily Whig - 1 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 2 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 24 October 1888 
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       Press Reports: Daily News - 6 October 1888 
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       Press Reports: East London Advertiser - 13 October 1888 
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       Press Reports: Evening News - 1 October 1888 
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       Press Reports: Freemans Journal and Daily Commercial Advertiser - 1 Octo... 
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       Press Reports: Irish Times - 1 October 1888 
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       Press Reports: Macclesfield Courier and Herald - 27 October 1888 
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       Press Reports: Manchester Guardian - 6 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Manitoba Daily Free Press - 1 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Montreal Daily Star - 1 October 1888 
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       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 10 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 2 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 24 October 1888 
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       Press Reports: Times [London] - 9 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Weekly Herald - 5 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Woodford Times - 5 October 1888 
       Ripper Media: Jack the Rippers Tredje Offer 
       Victims: Elizabeth Stride 
       Victorian London: Berner Street 
       Witnesses: Dr. Frederick William Blackwell 
       Witnesses: J. Best and John Gardner 
       Witnesses: James Brown 
       Witnesses: Thomas Bates 
  George Payne
       Ripper Media: Jack the Ripper: A Suspect Guide - George Payne 
  Lodging Houses
       Dissertations: An East End Lodging House in the 1880s 
       Official Documents: Parliamentary Debates - November 16 1888 
       Official Documents: Parliamentary Debates - November 22 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 17 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 23 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 17 November 1888 
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       Press Reports: East End News - 05 October 1888 
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       Press Reports: East London Advertiser - 10 November 1888 
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       Press Reports: Leytonstone Express and Independent - 1 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 14 December 1888 
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       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 5 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 12 October 1888 
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       Press Reports: Star - 3 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 10 June 1914 
       Victorian London: The Worst Street in London 
  Matthew Packer
       Dissertations: Matthew Packer - Final Thoughts 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 15 November 1888 
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       Press Reports: Echo - 17 October 1888 
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       Press Reports: Freemans Journal and Daily Commercial Advertiser - 8 Octo... 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 15 November 1888 
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       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 15 November 1888 
       Press Reports: People - 4 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 15 November 1888 
       Ripper Media: Jack the Ripper: A Cast of Thousands - Matthew Packer 
       Witnesses: Matthew Packer 
  Ripper Letters
       Home: Jack the Ripper: The Dear Boss Letter 
       Dissertations: An Inspiration From Hell 
       Dissertations: Another Look at the Lusk Kidney 
       Dissertations: Dear Boss: Hoax as Popular Communal Narrative in the Case... 
       Dissertations: Thomas Bulling and the Myth of the London Journalist 
       Message Boards: Letters and Communications 
       Press Reports: 22 January 1889 
       Press Reports: Alderley and Wilmslow Advertiser - 16 August 1889 
       Press Reports: Atlanta Constitution - 18 November 1888 
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       Press Reports: Bournemouth Visitors Directory - 14 November 1888 
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       Press Reports: British Daily Whig - 8 October 1888 
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       Press Reports: Daily News - 12 October 1888 
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       Press Reports: Diario de Hogar - 29 December 1889 
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       Press Reports: East London Observer - 20 October 1888 
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       Press Reports: Echo - 10 November 1888 
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       Press Reports: El Tiempo - 30 October 1889 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 12 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 12 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 13 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 15 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 15 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 16 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 2 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 22 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 26 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 29 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 29 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 3 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 5 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening Star - 26 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Fort Wayne Gazette - 12 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel - 29 October 1890 
       Press Reports: Frederick News - 18 September 1889 
       Press Reports: Frederick News - 24 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Freemans Journal and Daily Commercial Advertiser - 10 Oct... 
       Press Reports: Fresno Weekly Republican - 20 September 1889 
       Press Reports: Galveston Daily News - 10 October 1890 
       Press Reports: Galveston Daily News - 2 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Hackney Standard - 13 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Hackney Standard - 6 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Indiana County Gazette - 9 October 1890 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 12 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 13 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 14 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 16 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Kellogg Enterprise - 18 October 1889 
       Press Reports: Lincoln Evening News - 29 June 1891 
       Press Reports: Liverpool Daily Post - 11 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Manitoba Daily Free Press - 1 May 1889 
       Press Reports: Manitoba Daily Free Press - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Manitoba Daily Free Press - 23 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Manitoba Daily Free Press - 26 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Manitoba Daily Free Press - 3 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Middletown Daily Times - 3 December 1891 
       Press Reports: Mitchell Daily Republican - 19 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Mitchell Daily Republican - 22 January 1889 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 12 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 12 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 13 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 14 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 15 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 18 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 22 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 27 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 29 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 4 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Oregonian - 26 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Munster News - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: New Era - 16 October 1889 
       Press Reports: New York Herald - 26 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Newark Daily Advocate - 17 January 1889 
       Press Reports: Newark Daily Advocate - 18 September 1889 
       Press Reports: Newark Daily Advocate - 9 March 1889 
       Press Reports: News of the World - 7 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Ogden Standard - 1 February 1889 
       Press Reports: Ogden Standard - 27 June 1891 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 15 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 17 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 26 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Port Philip Herald - 26 November 1889 
       Press Reports: Qu'Appelle Vidette - 13 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Qu'Appelle Vidette - 27 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Salem Daily News - 7 February 1889 
       Press Reports: Sandusky Daily Register - 18 July 1889 
       Press Reports: Sandusky Daily Register - 19 July 1889 
       Press Reports: St. James Gazette - 10 November 1888 
       Press Reports: St. James Gazette - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: St. James Gazette - 6 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 16 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 2 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 23 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 3 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 4 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 8 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Statesville Landmark - 9 October 1890 
       Press Reports: Te Aroha News - 1 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Te Aroha News - 16 January 1889 
       Press Reports: The Bush Advocate - 5 January 1889 
       Press Reports: The Two Republics - 4 October 1890 
       Press Reports: The Two Republics - 9 October 1890 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 11 December 1894 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 12 September 1892 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 15 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 16 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 7 November 1934 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 8 January 1895 
       Press Reports: Trenton Times - 18 September 1889 
       Press Reports: Trenton Times - 21 January 1889 
       Press Reports: Trenton Times - 29 January 1889 
       Press Reports: Trenton Times - 4 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Walthamstow and Leyton Guardian - 21 March 1891 
       Press Reports: Weekly Gazette and Stockman - 18 July 1889 
       Press Reports: Weekly Herald - 26 October 1888 
       Press Reports: West Ham Guardian - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: West Ham Guardian - 28 September 1889 
       Press Reports: Woodford Times - 12 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Woodford Times - 19 July 1889 
       Press Reports: Woodland Democrat - 5 December 1890 
       Press Reports: Woodland Democrat - 6 October 1890 
       Ripper Letters: Ripper Letters 
       Ripper Media: Dear Boss... Three letters attributed to Jack the Ripper 
       Ripper Media: Jack the Ripper: Letters From Hell 
       Ripper Media: Three Letters From Hell 
       Witnesses: Emily Marsh 
  William Bull
       Press Reports: Star - 5 October 1888 
       Ripper Media: Jack the Ripper: A Suspect Guide - William Bull