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Times (London)
Tuesday, 2 October 1888

THE MURDERS AT THE EAST-END.

Yesterday, Mr. Wynne E. Baxter, Coroner for the South-Eastern Division of Middlesex, opened an inquiry at the Vestry-hall, Cable-street, St. George's-in-the-East, respecting the death of Elizabeth Stride, who was found murdered in a yard in Berner-street on Sunday morning.

Detective-inspector E. Reid, H Division, watched the case on behalf of the Criminal Investigation Department.

The jury having viewed the body, the following evidence was taken:-
William West, who claimed to affirm, said he lived at 40, Berner-street, Commercial-road, and was a printer by occupation. He lived in one of the houses on the right hand side of the gateway. No. 40, Berner-street was the International Working Men's Club. On the ground floor, facing the street, was a window and a door - the latter leading into a passage. At the side of the house was a passage leading into a yard, and at the entrance to the passage were two wooden gates.
The Foreman. - Is that right?
The CORONER. - There is a passage before you get to the yard.
Witness, continuing, said the passage had two wooden gates folding backwards from the street. In the northern gate there was a little door. The gates were sometimes closed, and at other times left open all night. When the gates were closed the doorway was usually locked. They were seldom closed until late at night, when all the tenants had retired. As far as witness knew no particular person looked after the gates. In the yard on the left hand side there was only one house, which was occupied by two or three tenants. That house contained three doors leading to the yard, but there was no other exit from the yard except through the gates. Opposite the gate there was a workshop, in the occupation of Messrs. Hindley, sack manufacturers. Witness did not believe there was any exit through that workshop. The manufacturing was on the ground floor, and he believed the ground floor of the premises was unoccupied. Adjoining Messrs. Hindley's premises there was a stable, which he believed was unoccupied. Passing this stable a person would come to the premises forming the club.
At this point the Coroner examined a parish map of Berner-street, which showed the yard referred to by the witness.

The witness, continuing, said he was not sure that the gardens of the houses in Batty-street faced the yard. The club premises ran back a long way into the yard. The front room on the ground floor of the club was occupied as a dining-room. At the middle of the passage there was a staircase leading to the first floor. At the back of the dining-room was a kitchen. In this room there was a small window over the door which faced the one leading into the yard. The remainder of the passage lead into the yard. Over the door in the passage was a small window, through which daylight came. At the back of the kitchen, but in no way connected with it, was a printing office. This office consisted of two rooms. The one adjoining the kitchen was used as a composing-room and the other one was for the editor. The compositors, on Saturday last, left off work at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, but the editor was there during the day. He was also a member of the club, and was either there or in his office until he went home. Opposite the doorway of the kitchen, and in the yard, were two closets. The club consisted of from 75 to 80 members. Any working man of any nationality could be a member of the club. It was a Socialist club.
The CORONER. - Have they to agree to any special principles?
Witness. - No person is supposed to be proposed as a member unless he was known to be a supporter of the Socialist movement.
By the CORONER. - Witness worked in the printing office. He remained in the club until about 9 o'clock on Saturday night. He then went out and returned about half-past 10. He then remained in the club until the discovery of the deceased. On the first floor of the club was a large room for entertainments, and from that room three windows faced the yard. On Saturday night a discussion was held in the large room among some 90 or 100 persons. The discussion ceased between 11:30 and 12 o'clock. The bulk of the people present then left the premises by the street door entrance, while between 20 and 30 members remained behind in the large room, and about a dozen were downstairs. Some of those upstairs had a discussion among themselves, while others were singing. The windows of the hall were partly open. Witness left the club about half-past 12. He slept a 2, William-street, and gave as his address 40, Berner-street, as he worked there all day. The distance from his lodgings to Berner-street was about five minutes' walk. Before leaving the club he had occasion to go to the printing office to put some literature there, and he went into the yard by the passage door, thence to the printing office. He then returned to the club by the same way. As he passed from the printing office to the club he noticed the yard gates were open, and went towards them, but did not actually go up to them. There was no lamp or light whatever in the yard. There were no lamps in Berner-street that could light the yard. The only light that could penetrate into the yard was from the windows of the club or the house that was let out in tenements. He noticed lights in one or two windows of the latter house, and they were on the first floor. When he went into the printing office the editor was there reading. Noises from the club could be heard in the yard, but there was not much noise on Saturday night. When he went into the yard and looked towards the gates there was nothing unusual that attracted his attention.
The CORONER. - Can you say there was any object on the ground?
Witness. - I cannot say that an object might have been there, and I not have seen it. I am rather shortsighted, but believe that, if anything had been there I should have seen it.
The CORONER. - What made you look towards the gates?
Witness. - Because they were open.

In further examination, witness said after he returned to the club he called his brother and they both left by the street door and went together home. Another member of the club, named Louis Stansley, left the club at the same time and accompanied them as far as James-street. Witness did not see any one in the yard, and as far as he could remember did not see any one in Berner-street. They went by way of Fairclough-street, Grove-street, and then to James's-street. Witness generally went home from Berner-street between 12 and 1 a.m. On some occasions he had noticed low women and men together in Fairclough-street, but had not seen any in Berner-street. He had never seen any of these women against his club. About 12 months ago he happened to go into the yard and heard some conversation between a man and a woman at the gates. He went to shut the gates, and then saw a man and woman leave the entrance. That was the only occasion he had ever noticed anything.
By the Jury. - Witness was the overseer of the printing office.

Morris Eagle, who also claimed to affirm, stated that he lived at 4, New-road, Commercial-road, and was a traveller in jewelry. He was a member of the International Working Men's Club, and was there several times during the day. In the evening he occupied the chair and opened the discussion. About a quarter to 12 he left the club for the purpose of taking his young lady home. They left by the front door. He returned to the club about 25 minutes to 1. As he found the front door closed he went through the gateway leading into the yard, and through the back door leading into the club. As he passed through the yard he did not notice anything on the ground by the gates. He believed he passed along about the middle of the gateway, which was about 9ft. 2in. wide.
The CORONER. - Can you say if deceased was lying there when you went in?
Witness. - It was rather dark and I cannot say for certain if anything was there or not. I do not remember whether I met any one in Berner-street when I returned to the yard, neither do I remember seeing any one in the yard.
The CORONER. - Supposing you saw a man and woman in the yard, would you have remembered it?
Witness - I am sure I would.
The CORONER. - Did you notice if there were any lights in the house on the left-hand side?
Witness. - I do not remember.
The CORONER. - Are you often late at night at the club, and do you often go into the yard?
Witness. - I often am there until late, but have seldom gone into the yard. In fact, I have never seen a man or woman in the yard. On the same side as the club is a beershop and I have seen men and women coming from there.
A Juryman. - That is always closed about 9 o'clock.
The CORONER. - What were you doing at the club?
Witness. - As soon as I entered the club I went to see a friend, who was in the upstairs room, and who was singing a song in the Russian language. Afterwards I joined my friend, and we sang together. I had been there about 20 minutes, when a member named Gilleman came upstairs and said, "There is a dead woman lying in the yard." I went down in a second, and struck a match. I could then see a woman lying on the ground, near the gateway, and in a pool of blood. Her feet were about six or seven feet from the gate, and she was lying by the side of the club wall, her head being towards the yard. Another member, named Isaac, was with me at the time. As soon as I saw the blood I got very excited and ran away for the police. I did not touch her.
The CORONER. - Did you see if her clothes were disturbed?
Witness. - I could not say. When I got outside I saw Jacobs and another going for the police in the direction of Fairclough-street, and I then went to the Commercial-road, all the time shouting "Police!" On getting to the corner of Grove-street I saw two constables, and told them that a woman had been murdered in Berner-street. They returned with me to the yard. I then noticed several members of the club and some strangers were there. A constable threw his light on the body, and then told the other officer to go for a doctor, and sent me to the station for the inspector.
The CORONER - Did you see any one touch the body?
Witness. - I think the policeman touched it, but the other persons appeared afraid to go near it. When I first saw the body of deceased, I should say it was about 1 o'clock, although I did not look at the clock.

In answer to the foreman of the jury, the witness further said he could not remember haw far from the wall the body was lying. On Saturday evening there were free discussions at the club for both men and women. Any one could go in. On Saturday night there were some women there, but those he knew. He should say there were not more than six or eight women present. Saturday was not a dancing night, although after the discussion was ended some dancing might have been carried on. Had a cry of "Murder" been raised he believed they would have heard it, or even any other cry of distress. Witness had never been in the stable or in Hindley's workshop, and could not say for certain whether there was any other exit from the yard except from the gateway.

Louis Diemschütz deposed that he lived at 40, Berner-street, and was steward of the club. The correct title of the club was International Working Men's Educational Club. Witness was a married man, and his wife assisted in the management of the club. Witness left home about half-past 11 on Saturday morning, and he returned home exactly at 1 o'clock on Sunday morning. He was certain about the time. Witness had with him a costermonger's barrow, and it was drawn by a pony. The pony was not kept in the yard of the club, but in George-yard, Cable-street. He drove home for the purpose of leaving his goods. He drove into the yard, and saw that both gates were wide open. It was rather dark there. He drove in as usual, and as he entered the gate his pony shied to the left. Witness looked to the ground on his right, and then saw something lying there, but was unable to distinguish what it was. Witness tried to feel the object with his whip before he got down. He then jumped down and struck a match. It was rather windy, but he was able to get a light sufficient to tell it was a woman lying there. He then went into the club, and saw his wife in the front room on the ground floor. He left his pony in the yard, just outside the club door, by itself. He told his wife, and several members who were in the room, that a woman was lying in the yard, but that he was unable to say whether she was drunk or dead. He then got a candle and went out into the yard. By the candlelight he could see that there was blood. He did not touch the body, but at once went off for the police. He passed several streets without seeing a policeman, and returned without one, although he called out "Police" as loud as he could. A young man whom he had met in Grove-street and told about the murder, returned with him. This young man lifted the woman's head up, and witness for the first time saw that her throat was cut. At the same moment the last witness and the constables arrived. When he first approached the club he did not notice anything unusual, and came from the Commercial-road end of the street.
By the CORONER. - The doctor arrived about ten minutes after the police came. No one was then allowed to leave the place until their names and addresses were taken, and they had been searched. The clothes of the deceased, as far as he remembered, were in order. Deceased was lying on her side with her face towards the wall of the club. He could not say how much of the body was lying on the side. As soon as the police came witness went into the club and remained there.
The CORONER. - Did you notice her hands?
Witness. - I did not notice what position her hands were in. I only noticed that the dress buttons of her dress were undone. I saw the doctor put his hand inside and tell the police that the body was quite warm. The doctor also told one of the constables to feel the body, and he did so.
The CORONER. - Did you notice the quantity of blood about?
Witness. - The blood ran in the direction of the house from the neck of the woman. I should say there were quite two quarts of blood on the ground. The body was lying about one foot from the wall. In the yard were a few paving stones, which were very irregularly fixed.
The CORONER. - Have you ever seen men and women in the yard?
Witness. - I have not.
The CORONER. - Have you ever heard of their being found there?
Witness. - Not to my knowledge.
The Foreman. - Was there sufficient room for you to pass the body when you went into the yard?
Witness. - Yes; and I did so. When my pony shied I was passing the body, and was right by when I got down.
The CORONER. - Did the blood run down as far as the door of the club?
Witness. - Yes.
The Foreman. - When you went for the police, who was in charge of the body?
Witness. - I cannot say. As soon as I saw the blood I ran off.

In answer to Inspector Reid, the witness said every one who was in the yard was detained. This included the strangers. Their names and addresses were taken, and they were questioned as to their presence there. They were also searched, and their hands and clothes examined by Dr. Phillips. It would have been possible for any person to have escaped while he went into the club. Had any person run up the yard witness would have seen him.

The CORONER. - Is the body identified yet?
Inspector Reid. - Not yet.
The Foreman. - I cannot understand that, as she is called Elizabeth Stride.
The CORONER. - That has not yet been sworn to, but something is known of her. It is known where she lived. You had better leave that point until tomorrow.
At this stage the inquiry was adjourned until this afternoon.




The excitement caused by the murders committed early on Sunday morning in Berner-street, Commercial-road, and Mitre-square, Aldgate, has in no way abated. In the East-end statements and rumours of the most extraordinary nature were in circulation yesterday respecting conversations which certain persons, male and female, had had with two or three suspicious-looking men an hour or so before the crimes were committed, the purport of the statements in question being to connect the latter individuals with the outrages. Nothing, however, can be extracted from these statements of sufficient importance to form any clue. A few arrests have been made by the Metropolitan Police, but none had been made by the City Police up to a late hour last night. The authorities are now fully on the alert in the localities of the murders, and, as stated below, it has been decided by the City Police to offer a reward for the discovery of the assassin.

It is satisfactory to announce that one discovery at least has been made which, in the hands of efficient detectives, should prove an important clue to the lurking-place of the murderer - for the belief is now generally entertained in official quarters that to one person alone is attributable the series of crimes which in the last few weeks have horrified and alarmed the public.

It appears after perpetrating his foul work in Mitre-square the miscreant retraced his steps towards the scene of the crime which he had committed an hour or so earlier. As stated in the particulars given in The Times of yesterday, part of the attire of the unfortunate woman who was butchered in Mitre-square consisted of a portion of a coarse white apron, which was found loosely hanging about the neck. A piece of this apron had been torn away by the villain, who, in proceeding to his destination further east after leaving the City boundary, presumably used it to wipe his hands or his knife on, and then threw it away. It was picked up in Goulston-street very shortly after the second murder had been committed, and it was brought to the mortuary by Dr. Phillips soon after the body had been removed there. It was covered with blood, and was found to fit in with the portion of apron which had been left by the murderer on his victim. Goulston-street, it may be stated, is a broad thoroughfare running parallel with the Commercial-road and is off the main Whitechapel-road, and the spot where the piece of apron was picked up is about a third of a mile from Mitre-square. By the direct and open route it is 1,550 feet, but it can be approached through several small streets, making the distance about 1,600 feet. These measurements were taken yesterday.

The only other clues in the possession of the police are two pawnbrokers' tickets which were found lying close to the spot where the Mitre-square murder was discovered, and a knife which was picked up by a police-constable in the Whitechapel-road early yesterday morning. It is described as black-handled, 10 inches long, keen as a razor, and pointed like a carving knife. The pawn-tickets are believed to have belonged to the woman. They were in a small tin box and related to pledges which had been made in August of a pair of boots and a man's shirt. The tickets had been made out in two names - Emily Birrell and Anne Kelly - and the articles had been pawned for 1s. and 6d. respectively with Mr. Jones, of Church-street, Spitalfields, who, however, cannot identify the woman as having made the pledges.

Photographs of the ill-fated creature were taken at the City Mortuary in Golden-lane both before and after the post-mortem examination, after which the features - which, as already reported in The Times, had been brutally cut about - were rendered more life-like by the doctors. Up to a late hour last night, however, the body had not been identified, though several persons, having missed relatives or friends have been taken to see it by the police.

Yesterday morning, shortly after 10 o'clock, an interview respecting the Mitre-square murder took place between Mr. M'William (the inspector of the City Detective Department), Superintendent Foster, and Inspector Collard and the City Coroner, who has arranged to hold the inquest on Thursday morning, it being hoped that the woman may be identified in the meantime. The plans taken by Mr. F. W. Foster, of Old Jewry, of the scene of this outrage immediately after it was discovered were submitted to the Coroner, and Mr. Foster will be one of the witnesses as the inquest.

The following is a description of a man seen in company with a woman who is supposed to be the victim of the murderer in the City. The man was observed in a court in Duke-street, leading to Mitre-square, about 1:40 a.m. on Sunday. He is described as of shabby appearance, about 30 years of age and 5ft. 9in. in height, of fair complexion, having a small fair moustache, and wearing a red neckerchief and a cap with a peak.

Two communications of an extraordinary nature, both signed "Jack the Ripper," have been received by the Central News Agency, the one on Thursday last and the other yesterday morning. The first - the original of which has been seen by Major Smith, the Assistant Commissioner of the City Police - was a letter, bearing the E.C. postmark, in which reference was made to the atrocious murders previously committed in the East-end, which the writer confessed, in a brutally jocular vein, to have committed; stating that in the "next job" he did he would "clip the lady's ears off" and send them to the police, and also asking that the letter might be kept back until he had done "a bit more work." The second communication was a postcard, and as above stated, it was received yesterday morning. It bore the date, "London, E., October 1," and was as follows: - "I was not codding, dear old Boss, when I gave you the tip. You'll hear about Saucy Jacky's work to-morrow. Double event this time. Number One squealed a bit; couldn't finish straight off. Had not time to get ears for police. Thanks for keeping the last letter back till I got to work again." The postcard was sent to Scotland Yard. No doubt is entertained that the writer of both communications, whoever he may be, is the same person.

Many adverse remarks have been made concerning the want of vigilance on the part of the police in connexion with the outrages; but it should be remembered, as urged by them, that the women are of a class who know that they are liable to punishment if detected, and who, therefore, go alone to the places where they agree to meet their male companions. Shortly after the first horrible murders were committed some weeks ago, special precautions were taken by the City Police authorities with a view to detect the criminal or criminals, several plain-clothes constables being ordered on the beats in the district which has now become so notorious. Instructions were given to the constables to watch any man and woman seen together in suspicious circumstances, and especially to observe any woman who might be seen alone in circumstances of a similar nature. At about the time when the Mitre-square murder was being committed two of the extra men who had been put on duty were in Windsor-street, a thoroughfare about 300 yards off, engaged, pursuant to their instructions, in watching certain houses, it being thought possible that the premises might be resorted to at some time by the murderer. Five minutes after the discovery of the murder in Mitre-square, the two officers referred to heard of it, and the neighbourhood was at once searched by them, unfortunately without result. It is believed that had any man and woman been in company with each other going to Mitre-square they must have been observed, and that the man in that case would have been detected and captured. The supposition of the police is that the murderer and the ill-fated woman went to the place separately, having made an appointment. The general impression is that no man in his right senses could have perpetrated such a series of dreadful crimes. Some of the doctors who have been engaged in the examination of the bodies believe it quite possible that the murders may have been committed in from three to five minutes.

At a late hour last night it was decided by the City Police to offer a reward for the discovery and conviction of the criminal, and the following notice was forwarded to us: -

"Murder - £500 Reward.

"Whereas, at 1:45 a.m. on Sunday, the 30th of September last, a woman, name unknown, was found brutally murdered in Mitre-square, Aldgate, in this City, a reward of £500 will be paid by the Commissioner of Police of the City of London to any person (other than a person belonging to a police force in the United Kingdom), who shall give such information as shall lead to the discovery and conviction of the murderer or murderers.
"Information to be given to the Inspector of the Detective Department, 26, Old Jewry, or at any police-station.


"JAMES FRASER. Colonel, Commissioner.
"City of London Police Office, 26, Old Jewry,
October 1, 1888."

The Lord Mayor, acting upon the advice of Colonel Sir James Fraser, K.C.B., the Commissioner of City Police, will, in the name of the Corporation of London, offer a reward of £500 for the detection of the Whitechapel murderer, the last crime having been committed within the jurisdiction of the City. The Common Council on Thursday will confirm the action of his lordship.

During yesterday three persons were detained at the Leman-street Police-station on suspicion of being connected with the murder in Berner-street, but no evidence of a serious nature was obtained against them.

The report of the arrest of a man on Sunday night at the Albert-chambers, Gravel-lane, Southwark, was not strictly correct. The man was not taken into custody at all, but was merely requested to go to Stones-end police-station by a detective in order that he might give an account of himself. After a detention of half-an-hour he was allowed to go back to the lodging-house.

Police-sergeant Dudman had his attention drawn yesterday afternoon to No. 36, Mike-Street [Mitre-street], a house a short distance from where the second murder was committed, and there he found what appeared to be bloodstains upon the doorway and underneath the window, as if a person had wiped his fingers on the window ledge and drawn a bloodstained knife down part of the doorway. Mr. Hurtig, who lives on the premises, said he had only just before noticed the stains. Almost immediately afterwards the same police officer had his attention drawn to similar marks on the plate-glass window of a shop at the corner of Mitre-square; but the occupier ridiculed the idea that they could have anything to do with the murders, as the windows were covered at night by shutters.

With reference to the murder in Berner-street, Mrs. Diemschütz, the stewardess of the Socialist Club in that thoroughfare, has made the following statement: - "Just about 1 o'clock on Sunday morning I was in the kitchen on the ground floor of the club and close to the side entrance. I am positive I did not hear any screams or sound of any kind."

The servant at the club strongly corroborates the statement made by her mistress, and is equally convinced that there were no sounds coming from the yard between 20 minutes to 1 and 1 o'clock.

Yesterday evening a singular discovery, which is supposed to afford an important clue to the murderer, was being investigated by the police at Kentish-town. At about 9 o'clock in the morning the proprietor of the Nelson Tavern, Victoria-road, Kentish-town, entered a place of convenience adjoining his premises for the purpose of pointing out to a builder some alterations which he desired executed, when a paper parcel was noticed behind the door. No particular importance was attached to the discovery until an hour later, when Mr. Chinn, the publican, while reading the newspaper, was struck with the similarity of this bundle to the one of which the police have issued a description as having been seen in the possession of a man last seen in company with the woman Stride. The police at the Kentish-town-road Police-station were told of the discovery, and a detective officer was at once sent to make inquiries. It was then found that the parcel, which had been kicked into the roadway, contained a pair of dark trousers. The description of the man wanted on suspicion of having committed the murders gives the colour of the trousers he wore as dark. The paper which contained the trousers was stained with blood.

Albert Backert, of 13, Newnham-street, Whitechapel, made a further statement yesterday in amplification of that which has already been published. He said: - On Saturday night, at about seven minutes to 12, I entered the Three Nuns Hotel, Aldgate. While in there an elderly woman, very shabbily dressed, came in and asked me to buy some matches. I refused and she went out. A man who had been standing by me remarked that those persons were a nuisance, to which I responded "Yes." He then asked me if I knew how old some of the women were who were in the habit of soliciting outside. I replied that I knew, or thought, that some of them who looked about 25 were over 35. He then asked me whether I thought a woman would go with him down Northumberland-alley - a dark and lonely court in Fenchurch-street. I said I did not know, but supposed she would. He then went outside and spoke to the woman who was selling matches and gave her something. He returned, and I bid him good-night at about ten minutes past 12. I believe the woman was waiting for him. I do not think I could identify the woman, as I did not take particular notice of her; but I should know the man again. He was a dark man, about 38 years of age, about 5ft. 6in. or 5ft. 7in. He wore a black felt hat, a dark morning coat, a black tie, and a carried a black shiny bag.

The following correspondence has passed between the editor of the Financial News and the Home Office:

                     "11, Abchurch-lane, London, E.C., Oct. 1.
"Sir, - In view of your refusal to offer a reward out of Government funds for the discovery of the perpetrator or perpetrators of the recent murders in the East-end of London, I am instructed on behalf of several readers of the Financial News, whose names and addresses I enclose, to forward you the accompanying cheque for £300, and to request you to offer that sum for this purpose in the name of the Government.
           "Awaiting the favour of your reply, - I have the honour to be your obedient servant;


"HARRY H. MARKS.

"The Right Hon. Henry Matthews, M.P., Secretary
of State for the Home Department."

"Oct. 1.

"My dear Sir, - I am directed by Mr. Matthews to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this date containing a cheque for £300, which you say has been contributed on behalf of several readers of the Financial News, and which you are desirous should be offered as a reward for the discovery of the recent murders in the East-end of London.
"If Mr. Matthews had been of opinion that the offer of a reward in these cases would have been attended by any useful result he would himself have at once made such an offer, but he is not of that opinion.
"Under these circumstances, I am directed to return you the cheque (which I enclose), and to thank you, and the gentlemen whose names you have forwarded, for the liberality of their offer, which Mr. Matthews much regrets he is unable to accept.
                 "I am, Sir, your obedient servant,

"E. LEIGH PEMBERTON."

Colonel Sir Alfred Kirby, J.P., the officer commanding the Tower Hamlets Battalion, Royal Engineers, has offered, on behalf of his officers, a reward of £100, to be paid to anyone who will give information that would lead to the discovery and conviction of the perpetrator or perpetrators of the murders. Sir A. Kirby is ready to place the services of 50 members of his corps at the disposal of the authorities, to be utilized in assisting them in any way they may consider desirable, either for the protection of the public or finding out the criminals. Of course, the Volunteers would have to be made use of as citizens, and not in a quasi-military capacity.

At a meeting of the Whitechapel District Board of Works, held yesterday evening, Mr. Robert Gladding presiding, Mr. Catmur said he thought that the board, as the local authority, should express their horror and abhorrence of the crimes which had been perpetrated in the district, and that, although it was not within their province to suggest anything, it would be right that they should address the authorities really responsible. Proceeding, Mr. Catmur spoke of the evil effect which had resulted in the district in the loss of trade. Evening business had become practically extinct in many trades, women finding themselves unable to pass through the streets without an escort. Moreover, the inefficiency of the police was shown in the striking circumstance that but an hour or two later than the murders in Berner-street and Mitre-square the post-office in the immediate vicinity was broken into and property of the value of £100 taken from it. Mr. Nicholson said that, while the local authority might not be responsible for the efficiency of the police, they were responsible for the proper lighting of the district. In one instance, which he mentioned, a court had been absolutely without light for nearly a week. Mr. Abrahams said he could not agree with the wholesale condemnation of the police. The Rev. Daniel Greatorex, said that the panic caused by the crimes was so great that emigrants refused now to stay in Whitechapel even temporarily. The new system of police duties, under which constables were frequently changed from one district to another, kept the policemen ignorant of their beats. This was one great cause of police inefficiency. Formerly constables were acquainted, not only with the streets in their district, but also with all the houses. The chairman said that local bodies had no responsibility in these matters, as the management of the police had been taken away from them. Mr. Telfer hoped that the recent crimes would result in a reversion to the old system, under which constables were acquainted with every corner of their beats. Mr. G. T. Brown said that the weak point in the London police system was the want of a proper detective service to deal with the criminal portion of the community. After further discussion the following resolution was carried, on the motion of Mr. Catmur, seconded by Mr. Barham: - "That this board regards with horror and alarm, the several atrocious murders recently perpetrated within the district of Whitechapel and its vicinity, and calls upon Sir Charles Warren so to locate and strengthen the police force in the neighbourhood as to guard against any repetition of such atrocities, and that the Home Secretary be addressed in the same terms."

A meeting of the Vigilance Committee which has for some time been formed in Whitechapel, was held yesterday at Mile-end, and a resolution passed calling upon the Home Office to issue a substantial Government reward for the capture and conviction of the murderer.


A correspondent writes:- "There are most remarkable coincidences with regard to the times at which all these murders have been committed which demand particular attention. The first and third of the murders, those of Martha Turner and Mrs. Chapman, were committed on exactly the same date of two separate months - namely, the 7th of August and September, while the second and fourth murders had the same relative coincidence, both being perpetrated on the last days of August and September. If the same hand carried out these crimes, these facts seem to point to the idea that the criminal was one who had to be absent from the scene of his crimes for regular periods."

A correspondent writes, October 1:- "Your leading article of to-day recalls the successful employment of a bloodhound in the detection of a barbarous murder at Blackburn 12 years ago. It may be noted that in this case two days at least had elapsed between the commission of the crime and its detection by means of the dog. Another relevant case is thus related in Jesse's 'Anecdotes of Dogs':- 'A servant, discharged by a sporting country gentleman, broke into his stables by night, and cut off the ears and tail of a favourite hunter. As soon as it was discovered, a bloodhound was bought into the stable, who at once detected the scent of the miscreant, and traced it more than 20 miles. He then stopped at a door, whence no power could move him. Being at length admitted, he ran to the top of the house, and, bursting open the door of a garret, found the object that he sought in bed, and would have torn him to pieces had not the huntsman, who had followed him on a fleet horse, rushed up after him.' Bewick, after mentioning the detective qualities of the bloodhound, observes, rather unfortunately, that 'as the arm of justice is now extended over every part of the country, and there are no secret recesses where villainy may lay concealed, these services are no longer necessary.'"


TO THE EDITOR OF THE TIMES.

Sir, -- Paying my daily visit to my church this afternoon I was surprised to find the caretaker in a semi-stupified state.

Asking her what was the matter, she told me that a man had just entered the church, and finding her all alone inquired whether I was in the vestry. On receiving a reply in the negative he said, "I see you are alone," and immediately took out a pocket-handkerchief and dashed it in her face. The strong smell of whatever liquid it had been steeped in dazed and stupefied her, and she for a moment or two lost her consciousness. The noise of some of the workmen on the roof seemed to have alarmed this scoundrel, and he bolted out of the church.

This incident, Sir, perhaps might afford a clue. At any rate, it will warn solitary women who are in charge of churches.

I am Sir, your obedient servant,
J. M. S. BROOKE.
Vestry of St. Mary Woolnoth and St. Mary Woolchurch Haw, Lombard-street, E.C.


TO THE EDITOR OF THE TIMES.

Sir, - I cannot help thinking that these Whitechapel murders point to one individual, and that individual insane. Not necessarily an escaped, or even as yet recognised, lunatic. He may be an earnest religionist with a delusion that he has a mission from above to extirpate vice by assassination. And he has selected his victims from a class which contributes pretty largely to the factorship of immorality and sin. I have known men and women actuated by the best and purest motives who have been dominated by an insane passion of this kind, and who honestly believed that by its indulgence they would be doing good service. There are many such in our various asylums. I was myself all but the victim of an assassin who believed that he had a mission to destroy me as the impersonation of all that was evil and hindered the progress of mankind. He was transferred from my asylum in Middlesex to that of a county where he had a proved settlement, and subsequently attacked and imperilled the life of its medical superintendent.

A suggestion of this kind may be useful; certainly it can do no harm. I have, &c.,

EDGAR SHEPPARD, M.D.
42, Gloucester-square, Hyde Park, W., Oct. 1.


TO THE EDITOR OF THE TIMES.

Sir, - With regard to the suggestion that bloodhounds might assist in tracking the East-end murderer, as a breeder of bloodhounds, and knowing their power, I have little doubt that, had a hound been put upon the scent of the murderer while fresh, it might have done what the police have failed in. But now, when all trace of the scent has been trodden out, it would be quite useless.

Meanwhile, as no means of detection should be left untried, it would be well if a couple or so of trained bloodhounds - unless trained they would be worthless - were kept for a time at one of the police head-quarters ready for immediate use in case their services should be called for. There are, doubtless, owners of bloodhounds willing to lend them, if any of the police, which, I fear, is improbable, know how to use them.

I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
PERCY LINDLEY.
York-hill, Loughton, Essex, Oct. 1.


TO THE EDITOR OF THE TIMES.

Sir, - The fearful crimes that have lately stirred up the passions of all point to a more active policy on the part of those who are bound to protect the lives of Her Majesty's subjects (be they rich or poor) from a continuance of crimes that surpass all that have gone before. Far be it from me to blame the action of the Home Secretary, police, or those in authority, but, as a magistrate of more than 30 years' experience among the criminal population of London, as well as much intercourse with the working classes, I have no hesitation in saying that the best way to detect crime of a heinous character is to offer at once a large and substantial reward. Some may say, "Who will protect a murderer?" Let me remind them that an informer is always looked upon as a man to be avoided; so few like to come forward to speak in evidence of knowledge which in the end might prove faulty. A hardworking, respectable man would likewise say, "It will entail a loss of some days' work which I can ill afford to lose," so that silence to him seems the best course to pursue.

I do not know whom to address with authority equal to The Times, but venture so suggest that a large reward, say £1,000, should at once be offered, to which, in my humble capacity, I shall be pleased to subscribe £50 (fifty pounds), and, if necessary, to assist in the formation of a fund to be solely devoted to the detection and punishment of crimes of a heinous nature and for the reward of those who may assist in its discovery. If you think this subject worthy of publicity, I have no hesitation in giving my name and address.

I have the honour to remain your obedient servant,
HENRY WHITE, Magistrate of Middlesex.
30, Queen's-gate, South Kensington, Oct. 1.


THE DURHAM MURDER.

Yesterday afternoon a telegram was received at Gateshead by Superintendent Harrison, stating that William Waddle, who had been sought by the police in connexion with the murder and mutilation of Jane Beetmoor on Birley Fell, North Durham, on the night of Saturday, September 22, had been apprehended at Yetholm, in Roxburghshire, Scotland. On the night when the murder is believed to have been committed Waddle called for the young woman at a house where she had been visiting a neighbour, and they were subsequently seen walking along the road towards the house where the deceased lived. On the following morning the body of Jane Beetmoor was found shockingly mutilated, and Waddle, who had been looked upon as her sweetheart, had disappeared. It was at first believed that he had taken his own life, but after a diligent search this idea was abandoned. Several times there have been reports that a man answering his description had been seen on the road towards Scotland, but there was nothing definite in any of them. It is now known that on Thursday he called at the shop of a cast-off clothes dealer at Berwick, and changed the suit he was wearing for another, receiving five shillings in addition. To account for his wish to change his clothes, he said that he was hard up. His discarded garments have been sent to Gateshead, and there are indications that a portion of the coat has been washed. There is a dark stain on the waistcoat, and the clothing has been given to an analytical chemist, who will test for blood. From inquiries that have been made it is thought that after the crime Waddle walked to Gateshead and crossed to Newcastle. He is then supposed to have gone to Corbridge, near Hexham, where he has a brother living. He was unable to find his brother and must then have gone to Jedburgh, then to Coldstream and on to Berwick. After loitering about there for some time he made his way to Yetholm, where he was apprehended. He appears to have sustained himself on the road by begging. Waddle is 22 years of age, 5ft. 10in. high, and is said to possess great physical strength. Superintendent Harrison has gone to Yetholm, and will return with the prisoner to Gateshead. Information of the capture was communicated to the Treasury, who have instructed Mr. Thomas Lambert, solicitor, of Gateshead, to prosecute the prisoner, who will be charged with the murder to-day at Gateshead.


THE WHITECHAPEL MURDERS.

VIENNA, OCT. 1.

With reference to the recent atrocious murders in London, attention may be called to a crime of an exactly similar kind which preoccupied the public in this country for nearly three years. A Galician Jew named Ritter was accused in 1884 of having murdered and mutilated a Christian woman in a village near Cracow. The mutilation was like that perpetrated on the body of the woman Chapman, and at the trial numbers of witnesses deposed that among certain fanatical Jews there existed a superstition to the effect that if a Jew became intimate with a Christian woman he would atone for his offence by slaying and mutilating the object of his passion. Sundry passages of the Talmud were quoted which, according to the witnesses, expressly sanctioned this form of atonement. The trial caused an immense sensation, and Ritter, being found guilty, was sentenced to death.

The Judges of the Court of Appeal, however, feeling that the man was the victim of popular error and anti-Semitic prejudice, ordered a new trial upon some technicality. Again a jury pronounced against Ritter, and once more the Court of Appeal found a flaw in the proceedings. A third trial took place, and for the third time Ritter was condemned to be hanged, but upon this the Court of Appeal quashed the sentence altogether, and Ritter was released, after having been in prison 37 months. There is no doubt that the man was innocent, but the evidence touching the superstitions prevailing among some of the ignorant and degraded of his co-religionists remains on record and was never wholly disproved.



At Westminster, John Brown, 45, a man of rather powerful build, described as a labourer working in St. James's park, was charged before Mr. Partridge with murdering his wife Sarah by cutting her throat at 11 Regency gardens, Regency street, Westminster. Chief Superintendent Dunlop attended on behalf of the Commissioners of Police. It is stated that the deceased woman unsuccessfully invoked the assistance of the authorities to put her husband under restraint as a person who was at times unaccountable for his actions and likely to murder her, and that on Saturday night in a state of terror she went to the parochial district medical officer and also expressed her apprehensions to the police. Constable Powell, 499 A, and Inspector Fairey, A Division, deposed to the prisoner coming to the Rochester row Police station and stating that he had stabbed his wife at 11 Regency gardens. Detective sergeant Waldock was despatched to see if the information was correct, and the prisoner was detained. He had a wild look about the eyes as if strangely excited, but he was perfectly sober. After the lapse of a quarter of an hour a message was received from Sergeant Waldock, and then the prisoner was formally charged with the murder of his wife and placed in a cell. A large, spring bladed knife, with a single blade stained with fresh blood, was found on him. Detective sergeant Waldock said that he went to 11 Regency gardens with a constable after the prisoner had given himself up. On arriving there he found two little boys in their shirts standing at the door crying. The prisoner is their stepfather. Witness went into the front parlour of the house and saw a woman with her throat cut lying on the floor with her head resting on her right arm. There was a large quantity of blood about, and she was quite dead though still warm. Near her head her bonnet was on the ground. Evidence was given by Mr. Charles Redding, hard metal worker, living at 12 Regency gardens, next door to the little three roomed house occupied solely by the prisoner and his family, to the effect that shortly before 11 o'clock on Saturday he heard a noise of scuffling in the prisoner's front room, then a cry of distress from a woman - "Oh, don't." This was followed by a dull thud on the floor and all became quiet. Robert Young, a stepson of the accused, nine years of age, said that the prisoner came home from work on Saturday afternoon, and his mother was frightened of him. She intended to leave him on Saturday night. He told her that he had "something in a box" for her and that then he intended to give himself up. Witness knew his mother went out to see her eldest daughter, and though he had been sent to bed he heard his stepfather going in and out. He heard no noise of a scuffle, and was aroused by the knocking of the neighbours. By the magistrate - Six or seven weeks ago prisoner went to Westminster Hospital, and was there three or four weeks. He subsequently went to a convalescent home, and on his return there was something the matter with him. He kept saying that their mother let men into the house and would look for them before he went to work in the morning and when he came home at night, lighting matches to peer into corners. One night he walked about and lit an entire box of matches. He sharpened a large knife every day before his mother both at dinner and tea times, although he did not use it with his meals. On Saturday, when he came home from his work, deceased told him that the prisoner was going to try and kill her. Prisoner never got drunk, he was a thoroughly sober man, and only had a little beer at night time. Detective inspector Marshall stated that there would be other witnesses on a future occasion. Superintendent Dunlop asked for a remand, and the prisoner, who had asked no questions and all along manifested an indifferent attitude, was remanded for eight days.


Related pages:
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       Dissertations: Albert Bachert 
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       Message Boards: Elizabeth Stride 
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       Press Reports: Penny Illustrated Paper - 27 October 1888 
       Press Reports: People - 28 October 1888 
       Press Reports: St. James Gazette - 3 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 24 October 1888 
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       Ripper Media: Jack the Rippers Tredje Offer 
       Victims: Elizabeth Stride 
       Victorian London: Berner Street 
       Witnesses: Dr. Frederick William Blackwell 
       Witnesses: J. Best and John Gardner 
       Witnesses: James Brown 
       Witnesses: Thomas Bates 
  Gateshead
       Dissertations: A Ripper Victim That Wasn't: The Capture of Jane Beadmore... 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 10 October 1888 
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  John Brown
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 1 October 1888 
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  Louis Diemschutz
       Press Reports: East London Advertiser - 27 April 1889 
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       Press Reports: Times [London] - 21 March 1889 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 26 April 1889 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 4 May 1889 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 9 April 1889 
  Rewards
       Official Documents: Parliamentary Debates - July 18 1889 
       Official Documents: Parliamentary Debates - November 12 1888 
       Press Reports: Austin Statesman - 10 October 1888 
       Press Reports: City Press - 28 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Colonist - 2 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 12 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 13 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Decatur Daily Herald - 13 October 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Observer - 24 November 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Observer - 22 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 13 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 19 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 20 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 11 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 13 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 20 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening Standard - 20 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Illustrated Police News - 22 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Kurier Codzienny - 13 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Kurier Codzienny - 9 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Macclesfield Courier and Herald - 17 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Manchester Guardian - 13 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 13 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 15 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 21 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Oregonian - 2 October 1888 
       Press Reports: New York Tribune - 02 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 02 October 1888 
       Press Reports: St. James Budget - 6 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 11 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 19 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 8 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 12 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 17 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 20 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 8 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Woodford Times - 21 September 1888 
  Ripper Letters
       Home: Jack the Ripper: The Dear Boss Letter 
       Dissertations: An Inspiration From Hell 
       Dissertations: Another Look at the Lusk Kidney 
       Dissertations: Dear Boss: Hoax as Popular Communal Narrative in the Case... 
       Dissertations: Thomas Bulling and the Myth of the London Journalist 
       Message Boards: Letters and Communications 
       Press Reports: 22 January 1889 
       Press Reports: Alderley and Wilmslow Advertiser - 16 August 1889 
       Press Reports: Atlanta Constitution - 18 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Atlanta Constitution - 18 September 1889 
       Press Reports: Atlanta Constitution - 31 January 1889 
       Press Reports: Atlanta Constitution - 5 February 1889 
       Press Reports: Bournemouth Visitors Directory - 14 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Brandon Mail - 16 October 1890 
       Press Reports: Brandon Mail - 29 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Brandon Mail - 8 November 1888 
       Press Reports: British Daily Whig - 8 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Bucks County Gazette - 8 November 1888 
       Press Reports: City Press - 19 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 15 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily News - 3 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Northwestern - 29 June 1891 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 13 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 14 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Daily Telegraph - 3 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Davenport Morning Tribune - 14 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Decatur Daily Republican - 27 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Decatur Daily Republican - 29 June 1891 
       Press Reports: Decatur Daily Republican - 9 March 1891 
       Press Reports: Diario de Hogar - 29 December 1889 
       Press Reports: East London Observer - 1 December 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Observer - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Observer - 10 August 1889 
       Press Reports: East London Observer - 6 May 1893 
       Press Reports: Eastern Post - 17 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Eastern Post - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 10 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 12 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 15 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 29 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 3 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 5 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 6 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Echo - 9 October 1888 
       Press Reports: El Tiempo - 30 October 1889 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 12 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 15 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 15 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 16 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 2 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 22 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 23 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 26 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 29 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 29 September 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 3 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 31 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 5 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening Star - 26 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Fort Wayne Gazette - 12 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel - 29 October 1890 
       Press Reports: Frederick News - 18 September 1889 
       Press Reports: Frederick News - 24 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Freemans Journal and Daily Commercial Advertiser - 10 Oct... 
       Press Reports: Freemans Journal and Daily Commercial Advertiser - 8 Octo... 
       Press Reports: Fresno Weekly Republican - 20 September 1889 
       Press Reports: Galveston Daily News - 10 October 1890 
       Press Reports: Galveston Daily News - 2 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Hackney Standard - 13 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Hackney Standard - 6 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Indiana County Gazette - 9 October 1890 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 12 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 13 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 14 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 16 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Irish Times - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Kellogg Enterprise - 18 October 1889 
       Press Reports: Lincoln Evening News - 29 June 1891 
       Press Reports: Liverpool Daily Post - 11 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Manitoba Daily Free Press - 1 May 1889 
       Press Reports: Manitoba Daily Free Press - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Manitoba Daily Free Press - 23 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Manitoba Daily Free Press - 26 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Manitoba Daily Free Press - 3 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Middletown Daily Times - 3 December 1891 
       Press Reports: Mitchell Daily Republican - 19 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Mitchell Daily Republican - 22 January 1889 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 12 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 13 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 14 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 15 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 18 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 22 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 27 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 29 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Advertiser - 4 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Morning Oregonian - 26 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Munster News - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: New Era - 16 October 1889 
       Press Reports: New York Herald - 26 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Newark Daily Advocate - 17 January 1889 
       Press Reports: Newark Daily Advocate - 18 September 1889 
       Press Reports: Newark Daily Advocate - 9 March 1889 
       Press Reports: News of the World - 7 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Ogden Standard - 1 February 1889 
       Press Reports: Ogden Standard - 27 June 1891 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 08 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 15 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 17 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Pall Mall Gazette - 26 November 1888 
       Press Reports: People - 4 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Port Philip Herald - 26 November 1889 
       Press Reports: Qu'Appelle Vidette - 13 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Qu'Appelle Vidette - 27 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Salem Daily News - 7 February 1889 
       Press Reports: Sandusky Daily Register - 18 July 1889 
       Press Reports: Sandusky Daily Register - 19 July 1889 
       Press Reports: St. James Gazette - 10 November 1888 
       Press Reports: St. James Gazette - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: St. James Gazette - 6 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 16 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 23 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Star - 3 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Statesville Landmark - 9 October 1890 
       Press Reports: Te Aroha News - 1 December 1888 
       Press Reports: Te Aroha News - 16 January 1889 
       Press Reports: The Bush Advocate - 5 January 1889 
       Press Reports: The Two Republics - 4 October 1890 
       Press Reports: The Two Republics - 9 October 1890 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 11 December 1894 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 12 September 1892 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 15 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 16 November 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 19 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 7 November 1934 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 8 January 1895 
       Press Reports: Trenton Times - 18 September 1889 
       Press Reports: Trenton Times - 21 January 1889 
       Press Reports: Trenton Times - 29 January 1889 
       Press Reports: Trenton Times - 4 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Walthamstow and Leyton Guardian - 21 March 1891 
       Press Reports: Weekly Gazette and Stockman - 18 July 1889 
       Press Reports: Weekly Herald - 26 October 1888 
       Press Reports: West Ham Guardian - 20 October 1888 
       Press Reports: West Ham Guardian - 28 September 1889 
       Press Reports: Woodford Times - 19 July 1889 
       Press Reports: Woodland Democrat - 5 December 1890 
       Press Reports: Woodland Democrat - 6 October 1890 
       Ripper Letters: Ripper Letters 
       Ripper Media: Dear Boss... Three letters attributed to Jack the Ripper 
       Ripper Media: Jack the Ripper: Letters From Hell 
       Ripper Media: Three Letters From Hell 
       Witnesses: Emily Marsh 
  Ritter
       Press Reports: Evening News - 16 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Evening News - 25 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Jewish Chronicle - 12 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Jewish Chronicle - 26 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Jewish Chronicle - 5 October 1888 
       Press Reports: Times [London] - 25 October 1888 
  Whitechapel Board
       Press Reports: East End News - 05 October 1888 
       Press Reports: East End News - 2 November 1888 
       Press Reports: East End News - 21 December 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Advertiser - 18 August 1888 
       Press Reports: East London Advertiser - 21 February 1891 
       Press Reports: East London Advertiser - 21 September 1889