Largest Circulation of Any Evening Paper in the Kingdom.
LONDON. TUESDAY, 2 OCTOBER, 1888.
THERE is nothing new about the Whitechapel murders - not even in the attitude of the Government. Mr. MATTHEWS has neatly tapped in the last nail in his political coffin by again refusing to issue the reward which the City authorities, the majority of the Unionist Press in London, and all sensible officials now favor. Whitechapel now knows the measure of the interest which its lords and governors take in its welfare. No one asks for a reward as an absolutely certain method of discovering the murderer. We ask for it as one of a series of methods - such as drawing the cordon, setting on bloodhounds, reorganising the detective agencies of the metropolis, and modifying the clumsy military drill of the police in favor of a system more especially directed to the pursuit of criminals - which have occurred to everybody but Sir CHARLES WARREN and Mr. MATTHEWS. There are two morals to this Whitechapel business - an administrative and a social moral. The administrative moral is that the police have too much to do, that they do the wrong things, and that they are in the wrong hands. The social moral is the one which ought to be kept steadily in view by the people's teachers and preachers in the Press. We gave our readers yesterday a faithful, realistic, but not overdrawn picture, of life in the East-end. The studies of our reporters, the sketches of our artists, were in no sense exaggerated. The "low-browed, stunted men," the unsexed women, are living, breathing realities. They are the fruits of eighteen hundred years of Christian civilisation. So far, perhaps, as heart and mind go, they are better than a good many people who walk in purple and fine linen, and go to church twice on Sunday in Belgavia. But they are what man has made of them. Death in the East-end may be terrible; but life in it? Ah, there is the problem which more immediately concerns us!
Society's interest in these things, says the Daily News to-day, is "intermittent." That is perfectly true; but has society counted the cost of its "intermittent" care for the myriads out of whose labor it lives? There can be only two ends to "intermittent" interest in East-end affairs. Either it will be kept alive by an assassination crusade, or it will die altogether until a physical force revolution subordinates that and every other interest in life to the simple one of self-preservation. Now, therefore, is the time for the really moderate man to come forward, and press his proposals. So far as they go, Mr. BARNETT'S are excellent. What we really want is a kind of democratic HAUSSMAN, who will do for London in the interests of the poor what NAPOLEON the Little's agent did for Paris in the interests of the rich and of a tyrant. Light, air, a certain wholesome pleasantness and freedom of aspect, a variety of social resources, are what distinguishes the West-end of London from the East. There are a good many things which distinguish it unfavorably - among others, most forms of vice and evil which are respectable and decent to look at. But, as Mr. RUSKIN put it many years ago, the people, robbed of the "pasture," are not too eager to get to the "presence." The problem is - how are we going to restore them to the former, in order that they may enjoy the light and beauty of the latter? Moral and religious crusades to the West-end, like that of Mr. PRICE HUGHES, may do something, but not everything. It is the political crusade which we want as well. And apparently there are only two methods of persuading the West that it is robbing the East, and must restore to it of its superfluities. There is the method of Terror, which is hateful and in the end useless, and there is the method of Reason, which is the only sane and sound way. As for procedure, there again we have the two paths. We can have the plan of "ransom," which savors of the highwayman (as well as of the renegade) and is at the best unscientific and clumsy. We can have the plan of re-distribution, by which gradually and safely wealth will be made to do its duty to poverty. On the face of it, the Whitechapel murder and a revision of our system of taxation seem wide enough apart, but the latter suggests the only way of accomplishing even the modest programme which Mr. BARNETT puts forward. We come round, then, to our old friend, the ground landlord, to our old problem that landlordism is the enemy, to our old moral, that the proper basis of taxation is the land values of which the "masses" are deprived, and which the "classes" absorb. Already the single tax is a practical problem in American politics, and will in all probability become the turning point of the American Presidential election. We have not got as far as this yet, but our social necessities are greater than the political urgencies of American politicians, and the moral of the murders is, that the longer we delay reform the nearer do we get to revolution. However, if we are not to have reform, by all means let us have repression. Let us take up the Balfourian moral so beautifully enforced to-day, and because London is the scene of a few violent crimes - far worse, be it noted, than the worst outbreak of violence in the worst district of Ireland in the worst times of the agrarian struggle - let us have a Crimes Act for the metropolis. Let Mr. MATTHEWS propose it, let Mr. BOMBA BALFOUR back it with his invaluable experience over the water - and then we shall see what we see.
HAVING done John Mandeville to death, Mr. Balfour yesterday went through with admirable spirit and humor the congenial process of dancing on his grave. There was a Quilp-like relish about this performance, which ought to give additional point to his remarks this evening to the working men of Manchester on practical Christianity. The practical Christian was not content with trying to show that the statements about Mr. Mandeville were untrue. He was at liberty to do this. But common decency might have prevented him trying to set down a man whom, in the opinion of the Irish and a good majority of the English peoples, he and his creatures have done to death, as a free liver, a reckless drunkard, a haunter of taverns, a vulgar brawler and sot.
NOW, we know that Mr. Mandeville was the opposite of all this. For a considerable portion of his life he was a pledged teetotaller. His gentleness, his love of the poor, his sweetness, his amiability, were in all men's mouths. He kept all Woodford going with supples of free milk in the hard times. He was a gentle, free-hearted Christian, a brave man, who spoke of his sufferings with a manly indifference which Mr. Balfour, with the cunning of a thoroughly mean and unmanly nature, has now turned against him. Just think of the monstrous unfairness of the thing! When Mr. Balfour wants to make a point against Mr. O'Brien, he compares him with Mr. Cuninghame Graham, who bore his punishment without complaint. When he wants to prove that Mr. Mandeville suffered nothing he quotes his own manly statements that he could stand all that his enemies put upon him. Happily there is ample evidence to show what his actual physical state was.
AS for Mr. Balfour's statements and inferences, we deal with them in detail elsewhere. They are mostly clumsy lies, supported by slippery logic. For instance, it does not in the least degree follow that because Mr. Mandeville had not the actual disease from which he died on him when he left gaol, his treatment at the hands of Barrism and Balfourism did not kill him. Nor does it follow in the least degree that because Mr. Mandeville, one of the keenest politicians who ever lived, insisted on attending public meetings after his release, he was not a stricken man when he left Tullamore Gaol.
BUT, perhaps, the very meanest thing about Mr. Balfour's address is the insinuation that Mr. Mandeville was a sot. As usual, it was only an insinuation. Mr. Balfour made it with a sneer, but he had not common courage to say so plain and flat. He preferred to stab by inuendo. Here it is :-
On 21 May he drove home late at night and took part in a drunken row. (Laughter.) Ladies and gentlemen, do not misunderstand me. (Great laughter.) I have not the slightest idea in what capacity Mr. Mandeville appeared on this occasion. (Much more laughter.) Please understand I do not utter this by way of blame or by way of comment upon Mr. Mandeville's life, except in so far as it clearly proves that Mr. Mandeville was no invalid.
An excellent jest, quotha! A pretty subject for laughter! A nice way of commending Mr. Balfour to the affections of the Irish people!
THERE is one wretched thought about the Whitechapel murders, and that is the ease with which murder may be done when it is contrived with an average amount of skill and forethought. It is the appalling clumsiness of most murders which puts authority on the trail. Murders done in passion or from greed or by a robber caught out in theft usually leave a broad track behind them. Here there are not only murders, but a murder plan thought out and executed by that most dangerous of assassins, a cunning maniac.
MOREOVER, the assassin has chosen the easiest form of crime by picking on victims who become his accomplices. The murdered women have been as anxious to avoid the eye of the constable as the murderer. Both have conspired together to watch him out of sight and hearing, and so diminish the chances both of interruption or rescue.
It is understood that Mr. Robert Louis Stevenson will tell the story of his South Pacific cruise in about 50 short articles, to be published serially.
Mr. Mansfield Essays Another Gruesome Part with Success.
Last night Mr. Richard Mansfield made good his claim to rank as a dramatic artist. His previous performance of the protagonist - or pair of protagonists - of Mr. Stevenson's strange psychological study, interesting, fascinating even, as it was, hardly substantiated this claim. After all, this Jekyll-Hyde was only the bogey of a nightmare - the most gruesome of bogeys, to be sure, but still a creature of sheer fantasy, something not only inhuman but extra-human. Mr. Mansfield's old Baron Chevrial in "A Parisian Romance" is far ahead of this, ahead by all the length of the gap which separates fantasy from realism, the figment of a dream from the study of a man. The play itself is as feeble as the one particular player is strong. It is a translation, by an American hand,
of Octave Feuillet's "Un Roman Parisien," which was produced at the Paris Gymnase in the autumn of 1882, ran for about 100 nights, and then was permanently shelved. The story is incoherent, unreal, and uninteresting. A young husband, whose misfortune it is in the present version to combine the false sentiment of the French jeune premier with the false emphasis of the average American actor, is suddenly called upon to face a great renunciation. He learns that his dead father had embezzled trust-money; this money is owing to an old, worthless rake of a banker, already, as the French would say, seven times a millionaire; to pay it he will have to give up every penny of his own, his mother's, his young wife's fortunes. But he does not hesitate, pays over every penny of the money, and retires into poverty. The wicked banker makes love to his wife; she runs away to America to try her fortune on the operatic stage; the wicked banker dies in a fit of apoplexy at a naughty supper-party; the wife returns, laden with dollars, to make all the virtuous people happy again - and there is the drama. This is the sort of thing which the scribes who invent the literary introductions to
would hardly condescend to, and the fact that it is signed by Octave Feuillet, member of the French Academy, is a severer criticism on that institution than the most vitriolic gibe in M. Daudet's "L'Immortel." But there is a compensation. Not unfrequently on the stage, in bold defiance of Euclid, the whole is very much less than a part, and so it is with "A Parisian Romance." The part is that of the wicked old banker, Baron Chevrial, which Mr. Mansfield has laid hold of, thought out, and elaborated into a wonderful characterisation. His, of course, is not the first fine study of senility the stage has shown by many a long way. Oddly enough, old men have generally been best played by young actors. Mr. John Hare and Mr. Beerbohm Tree are contemporary cases in point. And here is Mr. Mansfield, another youngster as age goes on the stage, jumping into the front rank of his art by a remarkable picture of the weaknesses of an aged debauchee. His picture, of course, suggests other pictures. His makeup is curiously like that of Mr. Arthur Cecil's elderly rake in "The Millionaire," an old Court success; his voice is the voice of Mr. William Farren in Lord Ogleby. But the character is, for all that, a new and distinct creation - it bears the sign-manual of none but Richard Mansfield. The palsied hand, the pendulous lip, the tottering gait, the cracked voice - all these may have been shown us on the stage before; but these are only part of Mr. Mansfield's study of the
Baron Chevrial. The sudden unholy flash that gleams in his eyes when he thinks of the fearful temptation he will be able to offer the young fashionable wife who has become suddenly poor; his death by a stroke of apoplexy in the moment of his proposing a blasphemous toast to the triumph of matter; these - and the part is a mosaic of such things - are moments when one recognises the true artist, the actor who can both think and convey his thoughts to others. In London, Baron Chevrial will suffice to establish Mr. Mansfield's reputation. No other element in the cast is of the slightest interest or importance. Miss Beatrice Cameron is sympathetic as the young wife, Mr. John T. Sullivan terribly heavy as the young husband, and Miss Maude White cleverly continues to represent a fast actress without offending the susceptibilities of the British matron. The rest is naught. But poor as the play is, the acting of the chief player is a thing on no account to be missed.
Some of Mr. Balfour's Statements Last Night Tested by the Facts.
We give below side by side the chief statements made by Mr. Balfour last night, and the true facts as they appeared by the sworn evidence at the inquest, and what has come to light since.
Mr. Mandeville, who weighed about 17st., lost only 3lb during his imprisonment.
When he left gaol he was pale and thin. His lips were blue. His eyes were sore, and his sight impaired. His handwriting was shaky; for a month he could hardly write at all. Before his imprisonment he frequently carried his wife upstairs; after his release he only did it once, and then complained of her weight. - (Mrs. Mandeville's evidence.)
|The reporter of the Freeman's Journal, at the time Mr. Mandeville was released, stated that Mr. Mandeville was in excellent health and spirits.||The Star Dublin correspondent, who saw him two days before his release, said: Though his words to me were deficient, and his spirit was unbroken, there was an involuntary tremor in his voice, which spoke plainly of the physical powers of a strong man broken down, &c.|
|Mr. Mandeville was in various states seen in public-houses. On 21 May "he drove home late at night, and took part in a drunken row."||Before he went to prison he took a two-years' pledge against whisky, which expired in January 1887. He renewed the pledge a month before he died. He had a great natural horror of drink. - (Mrs. Mandeville's Evidence.)|
|Dr. Moore positively swore that it was absolutely impossible that the germs of the disease could have been more than a few days old in Mr. Mandeville's system.||Supposing Mr. Moore to be right, the answer of course is that the germs of the disease settled in Mr. Mandeville's system, and developed to a fatal extent, because his system was predisposed to disease, undermined, and enfeebled, by months of starvation and ill-treatment.|
|As compared with the English rules, the Irish prison rules are "more lenient to the prisoner in the question of food, in the question of exercise, and in the question of labor, the three vital and fundamental questions which regulate the whole of prison life."||On the question of exercise the Irish prison rules were proved to have been broken in Mandeville's case. As regards their leniency, the best comment is the treatment of Mandeville as described at the inquest. Here are a few of the points: - During the whole of his imprisonment his throat was sore, yet the doctor certified him fit for punishment. He was for 20 hours without food because his throat was so sore that he could not swallow the punishment diet of brown bread and cold water. Fellow prisoners gave him a cord, which he tightened round his waist to allay the pangs of hunger. He was constantly suffering from diarrhœa, which increased when off punishment diet. These are his own statements. Dr. McCraith said that his constitution had been injured by his being left naked in his cell and fed on bread and water while suffering from sore throat, diarrhœa, and rheumatism. Mr. Egan's diary shows that the prison doctor's attention was frequently called to Mandeville's condition, and that he did nothing for him. The story of the stripping of Mr. Mandeville, and the other barbarities deposed to by the warders, should all be read with Mr. Balfour's eulogy on the prison rules.|
|Dr. Barr was a gentleman educated in Glasgow, a distinguished graduate of Glasgow University - many years connected with the great prison in Liverpool - chosen for his competency and humanity - a man whom any Government might be proud to find on the staff of its civil servants, &c., &c.||Dr. Barr is a bitter anti-Nationalist and a frequent attendant at Tory meetings. He is an Orangeman and married to the daughter of a publican of strong Tory proclivities. His professional conduct in connection with the Mandeville inquiry, and his diagnosis of the case were the subject of strong adverse comment in the Lancet.|
Here are some further facts : -
O'Brien's evidence as to imprisonment "not knocking a feather out of him" : -
"Mr. Mandeville's spirits were entirely lost after his imprisonment, though he was cheerful in manner."
He only made short speeches 2 April, 22 April, and 3 June.
"He complained that there was a torture in speaking," but he did not complain of any illness on account of the base use made by their opponents of such statements.
His hair had grown grey.
Blue spectacles. - It appears somewhere in the evidence that he was wearing blue glasses shortly after his release.
Dr. M'Craith's Evidence - Mandeville complained of sore throat "a month or six weeks ago," and again two days before his death. He had received medical treatment.
What first contributed to his death was "the lowering of the nervous system and vital powers." "He contracted the germs of a fatal disease by being left perfectly nude in a draughty cell, with a badly fitted door, and by being deprived of proper food."
The Times uses the following expressions in its leader on Mr. Balfour's speech. They are all references either to Mr. Gladstone or the arguments of his supporters : -
Mass of garbage.
A whining poltroon (Mr. O'Brien).
Impudent, barefaced, and childish fabrications.
POINTS FROM THE PUBLIC.
We Give the Pith of Some of the Hundreds of Letters Received by "The Star."
Suggestions for Detection.
"Lex," writing from Oxford, favors the idea of having the East-end patrolled by detectives disguised as "unfortunates," and armed.
"Greek" thinks about two dozen of the oldest of the loose women in the district should be entrusted with police whistles, pawn brokers in the vicinity being notified not to receive the whistles. The same correspondent suggests that some well-known clever members of the criminal class should be employed for a month at a small salary to endeavor to catch the murderer on their own account, the offered reward being, of course, their great inducement.
"A. J. F." contends that after, say, two a.m. until daylight the number of street-walkers in Whitechapel is so small that even with the present staff of police a vigilant watch should be kept upon their movements.
Mr. Robert E. King, of 1, St. Agnes-terrace, Victoria-park-road, writes: - Referring to the latter portion of your editorial headed "The Conduct of the Police," I shall be pleased to form one of a vigilance committee, such as you suggest. I will freely give my services in such a cause without fee or reward.
"W. A. G." writes: - Let the criminal authorities who are investigating the mystery compel every slaughterman to submit himself to medical examination, and those men where homicidal tendencies are found to be abnormally developed, let them be compelled to prove an alibi for any one of the dates on which the murders were committed.
Mr. N. T. Mooney asks : "Where are the bloodhounds?" Ugh! Matthews!
Sir Charles Warren is advised by "Tie" to issue an edict prohibiting slaughterers or butchers to wear their gory clothing in the street after dark or before dawn. The murderer would not then so easily escape in repeating his crimes. (But Warren is not yet sole dictator.)
Charles Hambleton writes from Burslem to remind us that the discovery of Fish, the Blackburn murderer, was brought about by the aid of bloodhounds, and suggests that the police keep a couple where they can be got at at a moment's notice.
Hugh Hillhouse would like to see started a national subscription to a fund as a reward to the capturer of the miscreant.
"Frangipanni" believes that if every inhabitant of the metropolis made the detection and capture of the murderer a matter of personal interest, he could not escape for long.
"R. W." says : - May we hope that, after a few more of these leisurely-executed crimes have been perpetrated in our midst, Sir Charles Warren, Mr. Matthews, or both, will sanction the use of trained bloodhounds and the offer of a substantial reward?
"One Ready to Act" suggests that the authorities enrol a number of prominent East-end tradesmen willing to supplement our detectives, and act in conjunction with our police.
W. H. Spencer-Howell writes : - I would suggest that a few young men of somewhat feminine appearance should be got up disguised as females. They should wear around their necks steel collars made after the style of a ladies' collaret, coming well down the breast, and likewise well down the back. My reason for this is owing to the fact that the assassin first severs his victim's windpipe, thereby preventing her raising any alarm.
"J. S.," writing from Bath, says : - I just fancy to myself what would the cry be if half the dastardly crimes had occurred in poor Ireland! The Government would be called upon to send more soldiers over; so I think it would be better for the country if the Government would order the soldiers from Ireland to London, as the police seem so inefficient there.
From the Dulwich Reform Club Mr. Francis Grannell writes : - As Warren and his baton men have proved conclusively to be totally inadequate to perform their duties as a police force, I would suggest that Balfour recall some of the military force from Ireland to assist in detecting the monster. The men might receive pay for this "special" duty from the Secret Service fund instead of employing it in "shadowing" John Dillon and William O'Brien.
I should like to ask Sir Charles Warren, writes Mr. Joseph Walker, from 13, Dante-road, S.E., if - supposing the police had been provided with bloodhounds which had been put on the track directly the body was discovered in Mitre-square, whether they do not think the murderer would have been tracked before he had cleansed himself. There is no doubt he walked away, as no vehicle was seen. I venture to say that if half of these atrocities had been committed in the West-end upon ladies London would have been placarded with a reward of not less than £1,000.
"Withdraw the Irish Constabulary from Ireland, let them be the guardians of Trafalgar-square and Scotland-yard, and reinstate the London policeman in his old position, and," says H. A. Morris, "the two burning problems of the day will be solved."
"A Laborer" suggests that the perpetrator of the murders may be a woman, a Kate Webster who has gained anatomical knowledge while learning midwifery.
Fred W. Ley suggests that the murderer is a religious fanatic.
Mr. T. Barry thinks that the man must be one who, having been ruined by dissipation, is having his revenge.
"A Reader" thinks the murderer will be found among a class well known to the unfortunates themselves, as he escapes so easily.
C. J. Solomons, of Hanbury-street, Spitalfields, has come to the conclusion that the murders cannot have been done by any person in a common lodging-house. Signs of blood on such a man would certainly be noticed. It must be some person who has a room where he can go at any time unnoticed and have a change of clothing.
"Justice" thinks the perpetrator might be a fanatic among the members of the Society for the Suppression of Prostitution, or of a vigilance committee, who is murdering to frighten prostitutes from the streets.
A police-constable writes a few facts, showing how constables are hampered by officialism : - On Wednesday, the 12th ult., Mr. Saunders, the police magistrate, was assaulted and robbed of his watch in the Hoxton sub-division. The thief was not caught. This is why. Wednesday is pay day for the police, and the superintendent, who is in his division the same as Sir C. Warren at Scotland-yard - a king - has given directions that every man shall be at pay table, or send in a report stating cause of his absence, which entails going up to King's-cross-road to Superintendent's office about two or three times when he is off duty! On the Wednesday when Mr. Saunders was robbed, at three p.m., every man on and off duty (that is, 13 fixed points, three cab ranks, and about eight men on beat duty), were at the station awaiting the superintendent's convenience for pay. This means that Hoxton is left every Wednesday for fully one hour totally unprotected.
The editor of the Financial News has received the following letter : -
1 Oct., 1888.
My Dear Sir, - I am directed by Mr. Matthews to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this date, containing a cheque for £300, which you say has been contributed on behalf of several readers of the Financial News, and which you are desirous should be offered as a reward for the discovery of the recent murders in the East-end of London.
If Mr. Matthews had been of opinion that the offer of a reward in these cases would have been attended by any useful result he would himself have at once made such an offer, but he is not of that opinion.
Under these circumstances, I am directed to return you the cheque (which I enclose), and to thank you and the gentlemen whose names you have forwarded for the liberality of their offer, which Mr. Matthews much regrets he is unable to accept. - I am, Sir, your very obedient servant,
E. LEIGH PEMBERTON.
Harry H. Marks, Esq.
The New York correspondent of the Daily News cables the suggestion of a theory that the perpetrator of the Whitechapel murders may be a man who a few months ago committed a series of remarkably brutal murders in Texas. The crimes caused great local excitement, but aroused less interest than would otherwise have been the case because the victims were chiefly negro women. A leading Southern paper thus puts the argument: "In our recent annals of crime there has been no other man capable of committing such deeds. The mysterious crimes in Texas have ceased. They have just commenced in London. Is the man from Texas at the bottom of them all? The fact that he is no longer at work in Texas argues his presence somewhere else. His peculiar line of work was executed in precisely the same manner as is now going on in London. Why should he not be there?"
The Superintendent of the New York Police admits the possibility of this theory being correct, but he does not think it probable.
The following letter, evidently the work of someone who tried to disguise his style and handwriting, was received this morning. We are not, however, inclined to believe that the actual murderer has favored us with his plan of campaign : -
Oct 1st 1888
as you take greate interest in the Murders i am the one that that did it wouldent you like to see me but you shant just yet i mean to do some more yet i have done 6 i am going to do 14 More then go back to america the next time i shall do 3 in one night i dont live a thousand miles from the spot not in a common lodging house
Yours in luck
MORE SCARES AND ARRESTS, BUT NO CLUE OF VALUE.
MATTHEWS WILL NOT BUDGE.
The Mitre-square Victim Still Unidentified - Clues Disappear or Become Worthless - A Man from Texas - Frightened Women's Screams - The Home Secretary Declines to Offer a Reward.
The police have made no visible progress toward the discovery of the master-murderer of the age. The denizens of that portion of London where he has thus far pursued his career of crime continue to live in fear of their lives, and the rest of the city is in momentary expectation of fresh evidence of his fiendish cunning. Such an adept in the art of assassination need never run short of victims nor of opportunities for their annihilation. The labyrinths of the Whitechapel district are far too dense and extensive for every dark corner to be constantly under the eye of the police, however greatly their number may be augmented, and
who appears and disappears as if through a trap door in the earth would seem to run small risk of capture. Indeed, it is the knowledge of his supreme success that it is feared will nerve him to a speedy reappearance in the same character. There is scarcely one person who has taken more than ordinary interest in these so-called Whitechapel murder cases who believes that the murders will cease till the murderer is captured. Such appetites as his are not so easily satisfied. He covers his tracks so well that there seems to be little hope of his ever being captured except in the actual commission of or flight from the scene of a fresh outrage. So general is this idea becoming, even in the minds of the police, that their operations partake quite as much, if not more, of the character of a guard against the reappearance of the assassin, as of an investigation of his past deeds of violence. All their efforts to get a tangible clue on which to work have been futile. Inquiry at the Bishops-gate and Leman-street police-stations this morning developed the fact that there was
The threads that had been taken up on the possible chance of their leading to something tangible have been laid down again. It is but fair to say that the police have clutched eagerly at every straw that promised to help them out, but there is nothing left to work on. People have come forward by scores to furnish the description of a man they had seen with some woman near the scene, and not a great while before the commission of one or the other of
but no two of the descriptions are alike, and none of the accompanying information has thus far been able to bear investigation. In the matter of the Hungarian who said he saw a struggle between a man and a woman in the passage where the Stride body was afterwards found, the Leman-street police have reason to doubt the truth of the story. They arrested one man on the description thus obtained, and a second on that furnished from another source, but they are not likely to act further on the same information without additional facts. If every man should be arrested who was known to have been seen in company with an abandoned woman in that locality on last Saturday night, the police-stations would not hold them. There are many people in that district who volunteer information to the police on the principle of securing lenient treatment for their own offences, and there are others who turn in descriptions on the chance of coming near enough the mark to claim a portion of the reward if the man should be caught, just as one buys a ticket in a lottery. Even where such information is given in good faith, it can rarely be looked upon in the light of a clue.
stated to a Star reporter this morning that he believed they had to deal with a man who was far too clever to go about boasting of what he was going to do. Every drunken man was more or less liable to seek a temporary notoriety by proclaiming himself the Whitechapel murderer. Very many of these reports are taken in hand by the detectives at once, not so much because they expect to get a clue out of them as because it might be unsafe to neglect anything of that character, but at the time when the Star man made the rounds of the police stations this morning the detectives had come to a standstill. The reported
of No. 36, Mitre-street, turned out to be nothing but candle-grease, and if it had been blood it would have indicated nothing but what was already made plain by the finding of the apron in Goldstein-street. The police are well satisfied that the murderer, having finished the mutilation of the body in Mitre-square, heard footsteps approaching, and had to make an exit before he could remove any of the personal evidences of his crime. He tore a piece off his victim's apron, wiped his hands and his knife on it as he went along, and dropped the bloodstained rag when he was sure he would not be observed. That he did this in Goldstein-street does not occasion any surprise. The police have never doubted that this midnight murderer lived in the midst of the community he has been terrorising.
afford no clue. The articles that were pawned have been secured by the police, but the pawnbroker can only say that they must have been offered by a woman, since it is his rule not to take a woman's name from a man. It is not to be expected that he can identify a mutilated dead body as a casual customer, and there is no good reason why the Mitre-square woman may not have given the names on the tickets as well as that Elizabeth Stride should have given a wrong name. The police are trying to trace the unidentified woman by the names on the tickets, and also to learn if Stride was ever known by either of the names, but they have not yet been successful. Superintendent Forster stated this morning that it was untrue that two shirt studs were found by the body in Mitre-square. The only articles of that kind were a couple of buttons that had been torn off the dead woman's dress.
accompanied by her son-in-law and another man, called at the Bishopsgate-street Police-station yesterday to get permission to see the body. She had read a description of the murdered woman and feared it was her sister. Her attention had been particularly attracted by the statement that the letters "P. C." were tattooed upon the left forearm in blue ink. The woman said she had for many years lost sight of her sister, who was living she understood, with a man named Kelly, in a street leading from Bishopsgate. This sister had had "T. C." tattooed upon her arm by her husband, whose initials they were. Kelly was the name, it will be remembered, which figured on one of the pawntickets supposed to belong to the deceased. The party were taken to the mortuary, and recognised the body as that of the relation they were in search of. The woman said she knew it from the forehead (the only part of the face that was recognisable) as well as from the marks on the arms, and also from some peculiarity of the body. There seemed to be no doubt of the identification, and an officer went with the visitors to make inquiries at the place where the missing woman was said to have lived. The door of the house was opened by the woman herself. Her sister nearly fainted at the sight. The officer brought the news back to the police station, where his story was barely credited, so positive had the woman been in her identification. This is the only occasion thus far that any one has thought they recognised the body, and the authorities are very doubtful if it is ever to be identified.
offered by the City of London is worded as follows: -
Whereas at 1.45 a.m. on Sunday, the 30th of September last, a Woman, name unknown, was found brutally murdered in Mitre-square, Aldgate, in this City, a Reward of £500 will be paid by the Commissioner of Police of the City of London to any person (other than a person belonging to a police force in the United Kingdom) who shall give such information as shall lead to the discovery and conviction of the murderer or murderers.
Information to be given to the Inspector of the Detective Department, 26, Old Jewry, or at any police-station.
JAMES FRASER, Colonel, Commissioner.
City of London Police Office.
26, Old Jewry, 1 Oct., 1888.
It will be noticed that a point is made of the exclusion from the benefits of the reward of members of any police force in the kingdom. It is believed in some quarters that this clause was inserted to avoid the contingency of the City paying over a reward to any member of the Metropolitan Police Force. A prominent police official stated to-day, however, that it was inserted on the general principle that no police officer needed the prospect of a reward to incite him to do his duty, and because, moreover, there was little fear that any police officer who might capture such a criminal as this would fail of due recognition. It was noticeable to those who frequent East London after midnight that - possibly as an effect of the offer of rewards - there were a good many more people about the streets early this morning than yesterday. Men whose faces were strange there were to be seen strolling about in pairs, peering into dark corners, and patrolling the back streets like amateur detectives.
A man was arrested in the City late last night, and has been detained at the Police-office in Old Jewry. He was seen behaving in a mysterious manner in the streets, and when accosted by the police, refused to give any account of himself. He gave unintelligent answers to their questions, and, as he was supposed to be insane, is now being examined by two doctors. He speaks with a strong Birmingham accent.
At a quarter before two o'clock this morning the attention of the police on duty near Holborn-circus was attracted by screams and cries of "Murder." They found a woman who appeared to be in great distress, and they secured a man, who, as she stated, had tried to induce her to go up a neighboring court, and threatened to kill her if she did not comply with his demands. The man, who is a portly German, with a heavy moustache, gave his name as Augustus Nochild, tailor, of 86, Christian-street, Whitechapel. Sergeant Parry took him to the Snow-hill Police-station. There was no knife on his person.
There was a Whitechapel scare in Barnsbury early this morning. At half-past one a woman raised a hue-and-cry in Cloudesley-road, and shrieked out that a man had threatened her with a knife. One of the men who ran to the spot blew a whistle and brought several policemen on the scene, luckily for the suspected Whitechapel murderer, who was seriously threatened by a mob of people. The man was taken to the Caledonian-road Police-station, and the "knife" was found to be a piece of steel of a perfectly harmless character. The man was a blacksmith, and had come into possession of it in the way of business. He gave a satisfactory account of himself, and as the woman made no charge, the police, after some inquiry, discharged him.
So great is the interest and excitement becoming in the City that on Thursday the Lord Mayor, who will preside at a meeting of the Common Council, will move that the Corporation do offer £500 in addition to the police reward. Mr. Lewis Henry Phillips and Mr. Samuel Price, both Common Councilmen, have motions on the agenda for that day, the first proposing that a reward of £250 be paid out of the City cash to any person by whose aid the perpetrator of the murders shall be convicted, and the second proposing that a reward of £200 be offered for the same purpose. As however, the Lord Mayor intends to propose a motion on the subject, these two gentlemen will withdraw their motions in favor of that of the Lord Mayor. It has been suggested that the Lord Mayor and the Stock Exchange were about to open subscription lists for the purpose of offering a substantial public reward, but owing to the action of the Home Secretary, the Press Association is informed that the Lord Mayor's scheme will in all probability not be carried out, and for the same reason nothing has yet been done in that direction on the Stock Exchange.
A young and respectable woman named Amy Delling was walking near Chambers-street, Goodman's-fields, East, this morning, and a man spoke to her in passing. Something in his appearance excited her suspicion, and she gave him in charge. Constable 132H searched him, much against the man's will. He found a loaded six-chambered revolver in his possession. He was taken to Leman-street police-station and gave the name of Arthur Curtis, of 13, Sansbury-street, East-India road, Poplar, and stated that he was a sailor. He appeared to be slightly intoxicated. He said he kept the revolver, which he bought in New York, for safety.
Curtis was brought before the Thames magistrate to-day charged with loitering for the supposed purpose of committing a felony, and also with having a loaded revolver in his possession. - Constable J. Clarke, 132H, said at a quarter past one this morning he received information that the prisoner was in Upper East Smithfield, acting in a suspicious manner. In company with another officer he went to St. George's-street, and asked Curtis where he was going. He replied, "I am going to 17, Stainsby-road, Poplar," but he was going in an opposite direction. Witness then noticed he dropped his left hand to his coat-pocket. Witness felt there and found the revolver produced. Curtis said, "That is mine. It is loaded." - Prisoner now said he lost his way and did not know where he was going. He had been down to Croydon shooting, and he forgot to unload the weapon. - Mr. Saunders told him he had been guilty of very foolish conduct, but did not think he meant any harm. He would now be discharged.
Percy Lindley is a breeder of bloodhounds, and knows something of their power. He says he has little doubt that, had a hound been put upon the scent of the murderer while fresh, it might have done what the police have failed in. Now, when all trace of the scene has been trodden out, it would be quite useless. He suggests that a couple or so of trained bloodhounds - unless trained they are worthless - should be kept for a time at one of the police head-quarters ready for immediate use in case their services should be called for. He is afraid, however, the police don't know how to use them.
A correspondent writes : - "There are most remarkable coincidences with regard to the times at which all these murders have been committed which demand particular attention. The first and third of the murders, those of Martha Turner and Mrs. Chapman, were committed on exactly the same date of two separate months - namely, the 7th August and September, while the second and fourth murders had the same relative coincidence, both being perpetrated on the last days of August and September. If the same hand carried out these crimes, these facts seem to point to the idea that the criminal was one who had to be absent from the scene of his crimes for regular periods."
This morning, at the Thames Police-court, William Seaman, 40, of 11, Princes-street, Whitechapel, was charged with attempting to murder John Simkin, a chemist, of 82, Berner-street, Whitechapel.
Prosecutor was now able to attend. He stated on Saturday night, the 8th ult., at ten minutes to twelve, as he was about closing his shop door, Seaman came in and asked for 1d. worth of zinc ointment and then for 1d. worth of powdered alum. Whilst witness was serving prisoner struck him a heavy blow on the head with a hammer. Then he rushed round the counter and struck him again. He then dropped the hammer and witness picked it up and gave it to a man who came in.
Dr. Francis John Allen said Mr. Simkin had a wound on the head, and was bruised all over the body, and at one time his life was in danger.
Henry John Smith said he heard prosecutor's daughter scream out, "They are murdering my father." Witness went into the shop and saw Seaman holding Mr. Simkin by the throat and punching him about the face and chest.
Constable 85 H, said that Seaman when arrested said: "I shan't tell you what I did it for, but I will tell the magistrate." He had been drinking.
The prisoner, having been formally cautioned, said, "I will say nothing."
Mr. Saunders committed him for trial on the charge of attempted murder.
This morning, at the Thames Police-court, Charles Ludwig, too, was brought up on remand charged with threatening to stab Elizabeth Burns, an unfortunate, of 55, Flower and Dean-street, Spitalfields, and also with threatening to stab Alexandra Finlay.
Mrs. Burns stated that about half-past three on the morning of Monday week she was in the Whitechapel-road. Ludwig accosted her, and they went up Butcher's-row. Ludwig put his arm round her neck. When she saw an open knife in his hand she screamed, and two policemen walked up. Prisoner did not say anything at the time, but before that he had been talking to her in English. She heard him tell the police he was a barber.
Prisoner, who says he cannot speak English, said, through the medium of an interpreter, "In the name of all that's good why should I wish to do it? Why did the police not take me?"
The evidence of Finlay showed that at three o'clock on the morning of Tuesday fortnight Ludwig came to a coffee-stall in the Whitechapel-road intoxicated. The man in charge of the stall refused to serve him. Ludwig seemed much annoyed, and said to witness, "What are you looking at?" He then pulled out a long-bladed knife and threatened to stab witness with it. Ludwig followed him round the stall, and made several attempts to stab him, until witness threatened to knock a dish on his head. A constable came up, and witness gave the accused into custody.
Constable 221 H said that when he took Ludwig into custody he was very excited. Witness had previously received information that Ludwig was wanted for attempting to cut a woman's throat. On the way to the station he dropped a long-bladed knife, which was open; and when he was searched a razor and a long-bladed pair of scissors were found on him.
Inspector Pimley, H Division, stated that the prisoner had fully accounted for his whereabouts on the nights of the recent murders.
Mr. Saunders taking into consideration that prisoner had been in custody a fortnight, now discharged him.
An order for the committal of Mr. Shine, who, it was stated, was employed at the Adelphi at a salary of £14 a week, was made at Westminster to-day.
The Birtley Murder.
The young man Waddle was brought before the Gateshead magistrates to-day charged with the Birtley murder. The prisoner looked dejected and appeared to be partly demented. He simply said "Yes" in answer to the charge, and was remanded for eight days.
At the Paddington Vestry this morning Mr. Mark Judge moved that Sir Charles Warren be asked to publish an official return of statistics showing the numbers of the metropolitan police force and their local distribution during the past 12 months for the information of the local authorities. The motion was lost. The Vestry expressed the opinion that the publication would lead to an increase of crime by enlightening the criminal classes as to the disposition of the police.
The Tories of Worthing had a wet day at Broadwater the other day. There was a Primrose fête, and the speeches were in harmony with the weather - of dolorous cadence. Not so the resolutions. They breathed Whitechapel. Recording its sense of the Government's "services in maintaining the Union," the meeting expressed its special admiration for "the various great measures passed by them in the late session of Parliament for the reduction of the people, the relief of local taxation, and for the representation of the ratepayers in the administration of local affairs."
EIGHT PICTORIAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF INCIDENTS OF THE CRIMES IN THIS WEEK'S
PENNY PICTORIAL NEWS.
On Sale To-morrow (Wednesday) Morning.
Office: Red Lion-court, Fleet-street.
How the Gateshead Murderer Was Caught.
It is believed Waddle, the Gateshead murderer, has made a complete confession of the crime. The arrest was made by Mr. William Stenhouse, wool dealer, Yetholm, who encountered the man on a lonely road leading out of Yetholm on the hills by way of Halterburn. He admitted that his name was Waddle, that he came from Birtley, and stated that the woman Savage was his wife. He professed to be looking for harvesting, but Mr. Stenhouse remarked that he would not get what he wanted among the hills, and offered him work if he would return. Quite willingly he retraced his footsteps, and Mr. Stenhouse conveyed him to the police-station, where, in the absence of the policeman who was out on his beat, he was locked up. Waddle confessed to having had his clothes changed at Berwick, as detailed in the police information.
The strike in the Loire Collieries continues. The Town Council of Firminy, where the encounter between the colliers and cavalry took place on Saturday, met yesterday to inquire into the circumstances. It passed a vote of censure on the police magistrate, and called for his removal within 24 hours. He took upon himself to order the cavalry and mounted police to charge an inoffensive meeting of colliers. Five hundred of them had met to talk in a square because they had no other place to go to. The magistrate is confined to his bed from a broken skull. As he was reading the Riot Act the horse of one of the dragoons lashed out with its hind legs, knocked him down, and seriously injured him. The drummer who, according to the law, was requisitioned by the Commissary to call attention to the reading of the Riot Act, was a colliery lad on strike. As he escaped with the drum the trumpeter was ordered to sound his clarion. This frightened the horses, the Commissary writes, and so the dragoons went farther than he or they meant to do.
Is Christianity a Failure?
SIR, - Christianity has abolished the Gladiatorial games, slavery, inhumanity, caste suttee, and infanticide both in India and China. It has restored the dignity of women. I ask, what has atheism done? where are its schools, its hospitals, and its workhouses?
Rome murdered infants and children wholesale. Gibbon declares the Roman Empire was stained by the blood of infants, and that the Christians used to collect and save all they could from destruction and educate them. A religion that does this cannot be a failure. - Yours, &c.,
SIR, - Mr. Headlam is quite right when he asks you to define what you mean by Christianity. The failing of the day seems to be that there is too much preaching and too little living the Gospel. Let the clergy step off their pedestals, and throw themselves in with the people. If Christianity means only what is generally called "Protestantism," well then no wonder it is a failure, for it has no vitality and no beauty, it is a worn-out faith, struggling hard in its death throes. Church work should consist in doing everything that can be done to alter the wrongs caused by the selfishness of the few. Nay, more, there is not a single work under God's sun for making the people happy but what is Church work, even if it be "secular" work, so long as it is done for God and for the love of humanity. If we do this, there will be no need to ask whether Christianity is a failure. - Yours, &c.,
SIR, - Is Christianity a failure? If by Christianity is meant the everyday Protestantism that we see around us, I say, Yes! Fat vicars and rich bishops are now the shining lights and champions of the so-called Christian religion, and Mammon is the god that is worshipped. Christianity is now a gigantic fashion, and not a gigantic faith as it should be; the very words of Jesus Christ are ignored, and fresh ones substituted in their place. Instead of "Feed my lambs," we get "Feed me," "Clothe me," "Give me wealth," I am a bishop, I am a clergyman, and must keep up my social position. The everyday life of the majority of clergymen is a fraud; caste and riches they bow to, poverty and labor they despise.
If the doctrine of Christ were preached on earth as it should be, there would be no need to ask whether Christianity was a failure or not. No! Let each man strive to make the Kingdom of Heaven upon earth, help and not crush his neighbor, love and not hate; also let the clergy practice what they preach - be as their Master was, humble and meek, and instead of bowing to Dives, let them take Lazarus by the hand. Then Christianity will be a colossal success, the Kingdom of Heaven will be upon earth, and the peoples of the world will be a band of brothers, and shams and vice will be crushed by fraternity, equality, and love. - Yours, &c.,
SIR, - Christianity is, as I look at my dictionary, "the religion of Christ." Christianity is not a failure, but its professors fail to live its precepts. "We cannot," say they, "until the world is better, until all are Christians." My reply to this is, "That will never be until Christians act as Christians." - Yours, &c.,
P. S. - We have religious brewers; a Christian princess will christen a ship of war, a bishop will consecrate the colors of an army.
SIR, - I am a Protestant, and accustomed from childhood to look on the Established Church as the most enlightened form of our common religion, but as I grow older I get more and more ashamed of its actions. Compare the conduct of our clergymen with that of the self-sacrificing priesthood of down-trodden Ireland. When and where will you find a minister of the Establishment standing by the peasantry, encouraging and sustaining, by voice and example, even to imprisonment, the combination against the tyranny of the landlords? Take another instance, the tithe war in Wales and elsewhere. Who so determined (in these hard times for the agriculturist) in exacting the utmost farthing of his "legal" rights as the ecclesiastic? What wonder, then, with the struggle of religious exponents for the possession of wealth and power, in preference to the spreading of mutual love and concord, that scepticism should increase and Christianity be brought into contempt! It was but last Sunday I heard a village parson say in his sermon, which was a dissertation on "faith," or "believing," the poor were being too "highly educated," that "it must be stopped," &c. This is the sort of twaddle we have to submit to in country places even in the nineteenth century. I felt that I should like very much to apply this parson's income to the improvement of that of the schoolmaster and his assistants, where it would be doing far more good to the village which has to sustain him. - Yours, &c.,