25 September 1888
A CHAT WITH DR. BARNARDO.
On Thursday last there sailed in the good ship Parisian, bound from Liverpool to Montreal, ninety girls who had been rescued from absolute destitution, or worse, through the instrumentality of that most indefatigable and practical of Christian philanthropists, Dr. T.J. Barnardo, F.R.O.S.E. The ages of these girls varied from six to 19 years. Some were going out to excellent situations in different parts of Canada, others were on their way to childless homes in which they were to be adopted, all were comfortably and safely provided for.
A representative of The Evening News, who called upon Dr. Barnardo a few days since, says:
I found the director and founder of these splendid homes for destitute children seated in his private office at the central home in Stepney-causeway. In the outer vestibule or waiting-room were a number of ragged, sad-eyed lads waiting for admission to what must seem to them a veritable Paradise after the angry, cruel buffetings of the pitiless streets of London. The look of anxious expectation on those haggard faces was a sight that will linger in my memory for many days to come.
Passing through a large outer office where some fifteen or twenty clerks were busily at work, I was conducted to the doctor's particular sanctum from which he directs and controls the numerous institutions which he has brought into being for the benefit of the homeless waifs in the metropolis and elsewhere. That room is the Downing-street of the London gutters.
Dr. Barnardo's personality is too well known to call for description at my hands , so I will content myself with merely saying that he is an ideal London physician in appearance and manners. Surrounded by a huge mass of correspondence, including a batch of reports that had just arrived from his agents in Canada, he was just in that condition of hard work which he seems to like better than anything else. But he is always ready for a chat about the humane mission which has grown to such immense proportions under his fostering care.
"When did I begin this work first of all? Well, just twenty-two years ago," said the doctor. "I was a medical student at the London Hospital at the time, and my attention was called to the state of homeless children by the condition in which I found an unfortunate street-boy in a ragged school in East London in the winter of 1866. That was the beginning , and you see what it has grown to. We have now 34 distinctly separate institutions connected with our work in various parts of the United Kingdom and the Colonies."
"And these are all directly under your control, Dr. Barnardo?"
"Yes, I exercise supervision over the whole of them. Here in London we have this Home for Working and Destitute Lads, the Leopold House Orphan Home for Little Boys, a Labour House for Destitute Youths, the Union Jack Shoeblack Brigade and Home, a Young Workman's Hotel, a Servants' Free Registry and Home, the Rescue Home for Young Girls in Social Danger, Her Majesty's Infirmary for Sick Children, a Nursery Home for Infants, and Open-all-Night Shelter for Homeless Boys and Girls, and the Children's Fold for Little Cripples. Then we have a Nursery Home for Very Little Boys, at Teighmore, Jersey; a Village Home for Orphan and Destitute Girls at Ilford, Essex; a 'Babies' Castle at Hawkhurst, Kent; a Convalescent Seaside Home at Felixstowe; a Farm School at Bromyard, Worcestershire; an Emigration Depot and Distributing Homes at Toronto and Petersborough, Canada; and an Industrial Farm near Shell River, Manitoba, N.W.T. That is a pretty long list, is it not?" said Dr. Barnardo, with a smile.
"It certainly seems to cover all the ground occupied by the waifs and strays of our great cities; for I understand that your operations are not confined to London."
"Not at all. We get children from all parts of the United Kingdom. I think I may say that every city and town of importance has been represented in our Homes at some time or other. Without the least approach to boastfulness, I hope, we claim that, in the fundamental principles upon which they are conducted, our Homes are without a rival.
" You will, perhaps, better understand my meaning," continued the founder, "when I say that boys and girls are admitted from all parts of the kingdom, irrespective of age or creed, and, what is even more important, irrespective of physical defects; so that a child maimed in limb, or suffering from some grave deformity, or even loathsome disease, which would shut every other door in his or her face, is, if destitute, eligible at once for these 'Homes.' Many others, little children who are quite blind, or who are deaf mute, and yet others who have all their lives been hopeless cripples, are admitted without hesitation, if only they are really destitute.
"Admission to the destitute is immediate and without the payment or promise of a money gift, without the influence or intervention of patronage, and without voting or any other process of a similar kind. Destitution, homelessness, or, in the case of girls, grave moral peril, constitutes the sole condition of eligibility, and such cases are admissible at once.
"The industrial training of all young inmates is looked upon as a matter of the very first importance, every boy and girl, in addition to the rudiments of a plain general education, being taught a useful trade or fitted for domestic service.
"And what number of children have you under your care in the various institutions at present, Dr. Barnardo?"
"Nearly 3,000 children, who are orphans or absolutely destitute. Since I commenced the work over 11,500 boys and girls have already, through the agency of these homes, been removed from the life of the streets, from the perils of orphanhood, or from positions of the gravest danger- often from the custody of criminals or immoral people. These have all been educated, taught trades, or fitted for domestic service, and brought, during their stay in the 'Homes' under the kindly and beneficial influences of genuine Christian instruction and example. Of the large number thus carefully equipped for their life-work, 3,424 have already been placed out in the Colonies, no fewer than 506 of these having gone out during 1888 to Canada."
"You must have received liberal support from the public to enable you to carry on these gigantic operations."
"Well," laughed the doctor, "I will give you the figures, and then you will be able to judge for yourself as to the noble manner in which our efforts have been backed up by our sympathizers all over the world. My first report was issued on July 16, 1868, and the donations up to that date amounted to £214 15s. For the year ending March 31 last they reached a total of £98,531 2s. 7d. That is a healthy rate of progress, is it not? During the 22 years that the movement has been established the enormous total of £704, 464 5s. has been contributed to keep it going. And yet, so vast is the sum of juvenile misery and destitution in this metropolis alone, that if our income were doubled for the current year we could find use for every penny of it."
After hearing many deeply interesting particulars of this noble work (which, by the way, is absolutely undenominational) that the space at my disposal will not allow me to particularise, I was shown over that part of the wide reaching institutions which lies in Stepney-causeway. It was a sight that my readers should view for themselves on the very first opportunity they can seize.
The dormitories are the perfection of comfort, cleanliness, and neatness. Ach room will accommodate about eighty boys, and every dormitory has its separate matron , who is responsible for its good order. The huge dining room is a bright, airy apartment, lined throughout with glazed tiles. The kitchens include a large bakery, where some 600 loaves of bread are baked daily and distributed among the various branch institutions in London. There are extensive bath-rooms and a splendid swimming-bath, which contains 38,000 gallons of water. In the different workshops the lads are taught carpentry, engineering, brush-making, shoe-making, and tailoring , whilst others are trained in the kitchens as cooks and bakers.
There are two large school-rooms under the charge of certificated masters and subject to the regular Government inspection. Dr. Barnardo's system of education is an admirable one, and its adoption in other institutions would be of immense practical benefit to the masses of London. Half the day the lads are under the tuition of the schoolmasters and the other half they spend in learning some useful trade.
This is situated at Nos. 622, 624, and 626, Commercial-road East, and a brisk, happy, business-like air it has under the competent superintendence of Mr. John Appleton. About two hundred youths are generally engaged here, their ages running from seventeen to twenty-two years, and their occupations consisting of wood-cutting, packing-case making, and the manufacture of aerated waters and temperance drinks of every description. This Labour House is worked on commercial principles, and the packing-case department is patronised by some of the largest manufacturing firms in London, whilst the aerated waters are supplied to many of the principle hotels. After a probation of nine or ten months here, the youths, who show that they are not afraid of honest hard work, are shipped off to Canada, there to win for themselves a healthy independence, and a comfortable home far from the contaminating influences of their early unhappy lives.
A brutal assault which terminated fatally, was committed, last evening, at Sheffield, upon Rebecca Evans, aged 17. She was standing at a street corner with friends, when a youth named Frederick Laite, a grinder, to whom she had make provoking remarks, came towards her. When he overtook her he seized her by the shoulders, planted his knee in her back, and pulled her over. As she fell he kicked her. The girl was taken up dead, her neck having been broken. Laite was arrested. The parties lived in a very low neighbourhood. Yesterday afternoon the Barnsley magistrates adjudicated upon three serious outrages on females, all occurring in the Barnsley district. Jonah Thickett, collier, Monk Bretton, was committed for four months for a brutal assault on Annie Burke, hawker, of Manchester, in a field. George Shipeton, also a miner, of Monk Bretton, was committed for two months for an aggravated and violent assault on Annie Elizabeth Parkinson, a single woman, of Low Cudworth, at a late hour on Friday night. Charles Smith, collier, Worsbrough Dale, was committed for three months for an aggravated assault on Betty Johnson, a married woman, of Worsbrough, late on Friday night.
The police at Luton have apprehended a man named David Taylor, or Coronation-street, Cambridge, on a charge of stabbing his wife. She left him some weeks ago and while walking with her daughter along one of the streets of Luton on Saturday night, he followed her and stabbed her in the back with a knife, saying he had come to Luton on purpose. The woman was attended by a surgeon, but she is not believed to be in danger.
Yesterday afternoon, Dr. Churton, Chester, held an inquest at Eastham, touching the death of a young lady, name unknown, whose body was found there on Saturday, by Henry Lewis, a boatman working on the Manchester ship canal. ---Constable West said he saw the body on the shore. He found the young woman had sustained several deep cuts over the eyes, but there were no other marks of violence. He searched her pockets and found a black leather purse in her dress containing 1s. 8 ½ in money. There was also in it a printed leaf of poetry, much torn; she carried a horseshoe brooch and a pair of black woollen gloves, but wore neither shoes nor stockings on her feet, they being subsequently found on the shore. The name "Kate Stee" was written on the purse. Several persons had viewed but failed to identify the body. ---Elizabeth Noble, barmaid at the Easham Ferry Hotel, said she failed to identify the deceased as a young lady who called with a gentleman at the hotel on Saturday. The Coroner remarked that no evidence had been given that the young lady had been molested. The inquiry would be adjourned till Friday, in order, if possible, to have the body identified.
THE ACCUSED AGAIN BEFORE THE MAGISTRATE.
Before Mr. Saunders, at the Thames Police-court, today, Charles Ludwig, 40, a decently-attired German, who professed not to understand English, and giving an address in the Minories, was brought up on remand charged with being drunk and threatening to stab Alexander Finley, of 51, Leman-street, Whitechapel.
The evidence of prosecutor showed that at about three o'clock on the morning of that day week he was standing at a coffee-stall in the Whitechapel-road when Ludwig came up in a state of intoxication. The person in charge of the stall refused to serve him. Ludwig seemed much annoyed, and said to witness, "What are you looking at?" He than pulled out a long bladed knife and threatened to stab witness with it. Ludwig followed him round the stall, and made several attempts to stab him, until witness threatened to knock a dish on his head. A constable came up and he was then given into custody.
Constable 221 H said when he was called to take the prisoner into custody he found him in a very excited condition. "Witness had previously received information that Ludwig was wanted in the City jurisdiction for attempting to cut a woman's throat with a razor. On the way to the station, prisoner dropped a long-bladed knife, which was open, and when he was searched a razor and a long-bladed pair of scissors were found on him. Constable John Johnson, 866 City, deposed that early on the morning of Tuesday week he was on duty in the Minories, when he heard loud scream of "Murder" proceeding from a dark court. The court in question leads to some railway arches, and is a well-known dangerous locality. Witness went down the court, and found the prisoner with a prostitute, The accused appeared to be under the influence of drink. Witness asked what he was doing there, and he replied "Nothing." The woman, who appeared to be in a very agitated and frightened condition, said, "Oh, policeman, do take me out of this." The woman was so frightened that she could then make no further explanation. Witness got her and the accused out of the court, and sent the latter off. He walked with the woman to the end of his beat, when she said, "Dear me! He frightened me very much when he pulled a big knife out." Witness said, "Why didn't you tell me that at the time?" and she replied, "I was too much frightened." He then went to look for the prisoner, but could not find him, and therefore warned several other constables of what he had seen, and also gave a description of the prisoner. On the last occasion witness was unable to procure the attendance of the woman.
On the application of Detective-Inspector Abberline, of Scotland-yard, Mr. Saunders again remanded the accused for full inquiries to be made. He also allowed Inspector Abberline to interview the accused with the interpreter, Mr. Smaje, to ascertain if he would give any information as to where he was on certain dates.
THE GATESHEAD MURDER
THE VICTIM'S LOVER MISSING
Considerable excitement has been created in North Durham and district by the discovery of the body of the woman Jane Beetmoor, at Birtley Fell, from the circumstances that the wounds inflicted upon her are very similar to those found on the two latest victims in Whitechapel. The immediate cause of Beetmoor's death seems to have been a deep incised wound in the left cheek. The instrument used must have been long and sharp, and it entered the left cheek just below the ear. The wound extended almost right through the neck, and the spinal cord was completely severed. This would have in itself been sufficient to cause death. There was a wound also upon the other side of the face. The injury to the lower part of the body had been terribly cruel. The knife, or whatever instrument was used, had evidently been forcibly thrust into the body, and the half-severed bones show the force that had been used to extend the wound, from which the bowels protruded. The body was found in a ditch by the side of a wagon-way, in the direction of which the deceased was proceeding when last seen alive on Saturday night. It seems that the deceased, who was 27 years of age, was courted by a young man lodging in the neighbourhood, named Waddle, who was employed at the Birtley Iron Works.
Waddle has not been seen since Saturday. His disappearance simultaneously with the discovery of the murder has naturally attracted attention, and for the present the police are concentrating their efforts to find out the whereabouts of this man. The most vigilant search so far, however, has failed even to discover the slightest trace of him, and there is now an impression that if he has been guilty of the terrible crime he may also have taken his own life, and acting on this theory the police are making an investigation of some disused pit shafts in the neighbourhood, in which he may have committed suicide. As yet, however, the belief that Beetmoor may have been killed by her sweetheart is not supported by any tangible evidence, but rests entirely on the suspicion aroused by his mysterious disappearance at the very time of the murder. A search has also been made by the police for the weapon with which the murder must have been committed, but without result.
The Central News is enabled to state that Dr. Phillips, who made the post-mortem examination of the body of Annie Chapman, the victim of the last Whitechapel murder, has been sent to Durham in connection with the terrible crime committed in that district. Dr. Phillips, who left London last evening, will examine the body of the young woman who was murdered and mutilated at Birtley, with a view to ascertain whether the injuries inflicted on her resemble those inflicted on the Whitechapel victim. It is further stated that Inspector Roots, of the Criminal Investigation Department, also left London last evening for Durham with the object off ascertaining whither any of the facts connected with the murder of Jane Beetmoor on Saturday night are likely to be serviceable in elucidating the Whitechapel mysteries.
Up till a late hour last evening the local police had obtained no clue to the murderer, and the fact that several hours must have elapsed between the committal of the crime and the discovery of the body greatly increases their difficulty. The whole neighbourhood has been scoured, and the people have everywhere shown the greatest zeal to assist the police in the search, but, as stated, their efforts have been so far without reward. The methods and success of the murderer so closely resemble those of the Whitechapel fiend that the local authorities are strongly inclined to connect the two crimes. As in the last two London cases, the murder was effected without any violent struggling on the part of the victim, the actual cause of death being the cutting of the throat, and the same parts of the body mutilated, and in a very similar manner. Even the pitiful detail of the manner in which the victim's hands were upheld, as though in the vain endeavour to save her throat from the murderer's knife, agree in the three crimes. For the present, however, the police suspend final judgment until the results of Dr. Phillip's examination have been made known.
Mr. Graham, coroner for the Chester-le-Street ward of Durham, opened an inquest yesterday on the body of Jane Beetmoor, which was found stabbed and mutilated on Birtley Fells, on Sunday morning. The mutilation of the body is much more extensive and fiendish than at first reported. After examining the body and receiving evidence of identification, &c., the inquiry was adjourned until October 9. No arrests have yet been made, and nothing is known to indicate who the perpetrator of the outrage is.
In London the detectives continue their inquiries into the recent crimes. Some hope of a clue was received by the discovery in Devonshire-street of a parcel of blood-stained clothes. The garments were submitted without delay to a medical expert, who expressed the opinion that they had not been connected with any crime, but had been thrown away by some person suffering from skin disease.
A Newcastle telegram says in connection with the Birtley murder, that Dr. Phillips, from Scotland-yard, arrived to-day, and viewed the body of the deceased, in order to see whether the wounds are analogous to those of the murdered women in Whitechapel.
Dr. Forbes Winslow writes from 70, Wimpole-street, Cavendish-square, Sept. 24: "Sir-Will you allow me to draw your attention to rather a peculiar circumstance which occurred at Brighton yesterday afternoon at 4:30. My sister-in-law and her daughter were walking up Norton-road, when a strange-looking man, dressed in a brown pea jacket and cap, about the medium height, suddenly fell down on his knees right in front of them and produced from his pocket a large bowie knife, which he commenced sharpening on the flagstone before them. Naturally alarmed, they hurried home and informed me what had happened. It was too late, however, to capture the man, who hurried down Western-road. I immediately gave information to the police. The circumstance to my mind is of sufficient significance at the present time to draw public attention to it."