Thursday, 4 October 1888
At last the victim of the Berner-street murder has been identified beyond all doubt. A large number of persons have seen the body at the Cable-street mortuary, but up to yesterday no one had been able to say definitely that they recognized it. When, however, Mrs. Malcolm, of Holborn, on Tuesday told the coroner that she was certain the deceased was her sister, the interest and excitement greatly increased. Most of those present at the inquest probably had all their doubts removed by the witness’s firm expression of the belief that the deceased was her own flesh and blood; but her answers to the questions put to her by the coroner and Detective-inspector Reid led those gentlemen to come to the conclusion that the identification was not completely satisfactory. This led the coroner to suggest to the greatly-distressed witness that she might possibly see her sister, whose death she mourned, if she went to the usual rendezvous where they had met every Saturday afternoon, except that last Saturday, for the past three years. The witness was disinclined to adopt the coroner’s suggestion, and reiterated that she was quite certain that she had not been mistaken. However, yesterday another witness came forward, and swore that the body was that of Elizabeth Stride, with whom she had lived for the last three years. The evidence of this man - Michael Kidney - could not be doubted, as he confirmed the statements made by previous witnesses at the earlier stages of the inquiry. The police are now satisfied that the identification is complete, and that the body is that of Elizabeth Stride. Mrs. Malcolm is said to be as confident as ever. After the inquest yesterday she went into the Vestry-hall and showed a letter which she had received that morning, but which had no bearing whatever on the case. It was from a total stranger to the recipient; but she was, she said, quite certain that her husband could identify the writing, and that it might throw some light on the affair. Inspector Reid attached no importance to the document, and returned it to its owner, who went away apparently dissatisfied. The police are busily engaged making inquiries with reference to the knife produced at the inquest yesterday, but however it came to be put on the steps of the house in the Whitechapel-road, it is certain that it could not have been there an hour before it was found, although the murder was committed twenty-four hours previously. What the motive for putting it there could be cannot be imagined; but owing to the blood upon the blade, and the blood stains upon the handkerchief which was tied round the handle, the police are not going to allow the matter to drop. It is not thought that the witness Michael Kidney is keeping back any important information, but should this be the case he will be reexamined to-morrow at the adjourned inquest.
Inspector Reid has had an interview with a doctor who had suggested that a certain number of women should be paid to walk the streets at night, each of them followed by a plain-clothes detective. The officer pointed out the great risk the women would run, but the doctor suggested that they should wear iron bands round their waists and necks. The plan, however, is regarded by the police as impracticable.
The principal event in connexion with the Mitre-square murder has been the positive identification of the woman by a man named John Kelly, with whom she had cohabitated for seven years. Strangely enough, this man and the woman lived at a common lodging-house in Flower and Dean-street, where the woman murdered in Berner-street had stayed recently, and from which the first evidence leading to her identification was procured. Kelly states that he first met the deceased woman some seven years ago, in the lodging-house in Flower-and-Dean-street, and since then they had lived together. Once or twice the woman had spoken to him about her husband, and had told Kelly that her married name was Conway, and that her husband had tattooed his initials "T. C. " on her forearm. She said that she had had several children, and that a daughter of her’s was the wife of a gunsmith living in Bermondsey. It was with the intention of seeing this daughter that the woman went out on Saturday last, but she never returned. Kelly presumed that she had spent the night at her daughter’s and when on Sunday morning he mingled with the crowd in Mitre-square and discussed the crime he had not the least suspicion that the murdered woman was his paramour. On Tuesday, however, he happened to be reading about the murders, and he saw that the woman found in Mitre-square had the letters "T. C." on her arm, and that two pawn tickets bearing the names of Kelly and Burrell had been discovered lying near the body. At once he communicated with the police, and having viewed the body he had no doubt that it was that of the woman with whom he had lived. Kelly appears to feel the murder of the woman deeply, for he says they were always the best of friends. During yesterday he was out with the detectives trying to trace the relatives of the deceased. He had previously informed the officers that, to his knowledge, a sister of "Kate’s" was living at 6, Thrawl-street, a thoroughfare adjacent to Flower and Dean-street. Accompanied by a detective and a little girl, Kelly went straight to the house, and no difficulty was experienced in finding the sister of the deceased. Mrs. Frost, to use the name which she first gave to the police, lives on the top-floor of the house, and the girl who was sent upstairs to see her found the old lady in bed, from which, at first, she refused to rise. The lass returned to the detective and Kelly with this message, but was requested by the former to again go upstairs and this time to tell Mrs. Frost that her sister was dead, and that it was necessary that she should see the police. Thus appealed to, the woman rose, dressed, and was soon ready to accompany Detective Abbott on the mission of identification at Golden-lane. Mrs. Frost was accompanied by her son, George Gold, and also a young married woman named Lizzie Griffiths. The mortuary was reached at one o’clock, and the sister, on beholding the body of her mutilated relative, had no difficulty in recognising the features. The poor woman, as might be naturally expected, gave way to a paroxysm of grief after gazing on the dreadful sight, and had to be led from the mortuary. Her son George, who is a woodchopper in Thrawl-street, made the question of identity still more certain by at once declaring the body to be that of his Aunt Kate. Mrs. Frost, on recovering composure, made a brief statement to the police. It was to the effect that her sister had at one time lived with a man named Conway, and subsequently with John Kelly; and that there were two children whom she had had by Conway still living - one a daughter and the other a son. She further mentioned that the daughter was married to a man named Phillips, who is a gunmaker in the neighbourhood of Bermondsey, but that she did not know her address. As to the whereabouts of the boy she declared that she had not the slightest knowledge. The police, it is understood, are anxious to obtain the address of the daughter, though so far they have not been able to obtain any definite information. Last evening a representative of the Press interviewed Mrs. Frost at her residence in Thrawl-street, Whitechapel. She is a middle-sized, stout, and somewhat elderly lady, with a face which, though now clouded with sorrow, still retained a pleasant and agreeable appearance. On being ushered into the dimly-lighted room at the top of the house the reporter was received with the utmost courtesy, and the conversation opened by Mrs. Frost explaining that although she had described herself as Mrs. Frost to the police, yet she was known as Mrs. Gold, which was the name of her first husband. She stated, in reply to questions, that her present husband worked at the waterside in unloading cargoes of fruit. She had lived in that street for seventeen years, but although so near she seldom saw her deceased sister. Although on friendly terms, yet they did not associate much together. The last occasion on which they met was, so far as she could remember, some four or five months ago, and then the dead woman called upon her. The real name of her sister was Catherine Eddowes, for she had never been married. For many years "Kate" as they called her, went by the name of Conway, an army pensioner with whom she lived, and by whom she had children. Years ago they separated, and after that and down to the time of her death the deceased lived with the man Kelly. She (Mrs. Frost) was on speaking terms with Kelly, but did not mix with him. Mrs. Frost proceeded to state that she did not know anything of the murder of her sister until that morning between eleven and twelve o’clock. Disfigured as the face was, yet she had no difficulty in recognising the features and form of her sister. Here Mrs. Frost commenced to sob violently, and exclaimed twice, with a broken voice, "Oh, my poor sister! That she should come to such and end as this." Somewhat recovering her composure, the old lady went on to say that she did not see the tattoo marks on the arm, nor was she even aware of their existence. To see the face was quite sufficient to convince her of the identity of the dead woman. So far as she could tell the deceased was about 42 years of age.
With regard to the confession made by the man who brought up at Guildhall, the police attach not the least importance to it, although they desire to make a few necessary inquiries before releasing the prisoner. No further arrests have been made, but there is an opinion in the City that the police there have obtained some information, the nature of which has not been allowed to transpire, that may possibly lead to important results before the end of the week. Detectives in unusual numbers have been engaged, and the chief office in Old Jewry has an appearance of unwonted activity.
Soon after six o’clock last evening considerable excitement was caused in the neighbourhood of Ratcliff-highway by the report that a man was roaming about there in a suspicious manner with bloodstains on his coat. A crowd gathered and followed the individual referred to, uttering threatening cries. He was respectably dressed in a light suit, was apparently about 30 years of age, and had somewhat the appearance of an American. He took shelter in a public house, in company with another man to whom he was known; but the crowd still hung about the doors. At last a policeman appeared, who advised the man to go with him to the station and wait there until the noisy crowd had dispersed. This the man readily did, accompanying the constable to the King David-place police-station, where he was allowed to sit in an ante-room. The inspector on duty thought it necessary to question the man, whose replies were considered quite satisfactory. The stains on his coat were carefully scrutinized, but were caused apparently only by grease. At any rate they were not bloodstains. For a considerable time the police-station was besieged by curious spectators, who at last got tired of seeing nothing, and so dispersed. The man, who said his name was John Lock, and his age thirty-two, made the following statement to a reporter: - "I am now a sailor, and belong to the Naval Reserve. I and my wife have been in Australia for some years, and we came to England on the 28th April last. I left a friend’s house at 85, Balcombe-street, Dorset-square, this (Wednesday) morning, and made my way to the docks at Wrapping, for the purpose of finding a ship. I was walking along Commercial-road to go down Devonshire-road to see a man whom I knew nine years ago, when all at once I met a friend. He said to me, ‘Hullon, old man, what is all this?’ and he turned round to the crowd which was following me and told them to go away. I looked round and saw that I had been followed. I said we would go up Commercial-road and have a drink at a public-house, the ‘Victory,’ I think. While we were there the crowd stopped outside, calling ‘Leather Apron’ and "Jack the Ripper,’ and someone was good enough to send for a couple of policemen. When I got to the station I explained what I had been doing." "But," said the reporter, "the people outside say that you have bloodstains on your coat and collar. "Oh," replied Lock, smiling, "those stains are old paint stains, and that only shows what the public will do now." Up to this point he did not seem to understand that he was at liberty to leave the station, but the officer explained to him that he might go on his way as soon as he liked, but that it would be wise to wait until the crowd had dispersed.
Mr. Matthews was engaged for several hours yesterday at the Home Office with reference to the murders in the East-end, and had prolonged interviews with Sir Charles warren and others on the subject, during which the course of action already taken by the police was fully considered as well as the steps to be taken in future with a view to the discovery of the criminal. Mr. Matthews is understood to have directed that no power in the hands of the police should be left untried, and no clue, however unpromising neglected. The understanding between the metropolitan and City police is most cordial.
Yesterday the large force of police and detectives drafted into Whitechapel made a house-to-house visitation, and left copies of the following handbill:
"Police Notice. - To the Occupier. - On the mornings of Friday, 31st August, Saturday, 8th, and Sunday, 30th September, 1888, women were murdered in Whitechapel, it is supposed by someone residing in the immediate neighbourhood. Should you know of any person to whom suspicion is attached, you are earnestly requested to communicate at once with the nearest police-station. - Metropolitan Police Office, 30th September, 1888."
Yesterday afternoon Mr. Wynne E. Baxter, the coroner for East Middlesex resumed the inquest at the Vestry-hall, Cable-street, into the circumstances attending the murder of Elizabeth Stride, who was found with her throat cut in a yard off Berner-street, Whitechapel, early on Sunday morning.
Elizabeth Tanner, called and examined. - I live at 32, Flower and Dean-street. I am married, but my husband is not alive. I am deputy for the common lodging house at 32, Flower and Dean-street. I have seen the body in the mortuary.
Do you recognise the features? - Yes, sir.
As what? - As a woman who has lodged in our lodging-house on and off for about six years. She was known by the name of "Long Liz."
Do you know her right name? - No, sir, I don’t.
Was she an Englishwoman? - She used to tell me that she was a Swedish woman. She never told me where she was born. She told me that she was a married woman, and that her husband went down in the Princess Alice ship.
When did you last see her alive? - At half-past six on Saturday afternoon last. She never told me the Christian name or occupation of her husband. When I last saw her she was in the "Queens Head" and walked back to the lodging-house. At that time the deceased had no bonnet or cloak on. Deceased went into the kitchen of the lodging-house. I went to some other part of the building. I never saw her again, and I have not seen her until I saw the body of the deceased in the mortuary this afternoon.
You are quite certain it is her? - Yes. I recognise the features. She told me that she lost the roof of her mouth at the time the Princess Alice went down, and I recognise her by that. She was in the Princess Alice when it went down, and her mouth was injured. Deceased stayed at the lodging-house last week only on Wednesday and Thursday nights. She had not paid for a bed for Saturday night.
Do you know any of her male acquaintances? - Only one, sir.
Do you know his name? - No, I don’t. She left the man she was living with on Thursday to come and stay at my lodging-house. That is what she told me.
Have you ever seen this man? - Yes; I saw him on the following Sunday evening. I do not know that she had ever been before the Thames Police Court. I do not know that she was subject to fits, and I never heard that she was. I only know of her having lived in Fashion -street. I did not know that she ever lived in Poplar. I never heard that she had a sister living in Red Lion-square, nor, indeed, of her having any relative, except her late husband’s children.
What sort of woman was she? Was she quiet or not? - She was very quiet, sir.
Was she a sober woman? - Yes, sir.
Did she used to stop out late at night? - Sometimes, sir.
Do you know whether she had any money? - Deceased cleaned two rooms for me on Saturday, and I paid her sixpence for doing it. I don’t know whether she had any other money. I have seen her clothes. They were those she usually wore. I am not sufficiently acquainted with her clothing to be able to say whether the two handkerchiefs found on her were her own. The clothes I have seen a the mortuary are the same as she had on Saturday. I recognise the long cloak as being hers.
Has she ever told you that she was afraid of anyone? - No, sir.
Or that anyone had threatened to injure her? - No, sir.
The fact of her not coming back on Saturday was not such an uncommon event among your people that you were alarmed? - No; we did not take any notice of it. I was sent for to go to the mortuary.
By the Forman. - I do remember at what hour she came into the lodging-house on the Thursday. I remember taking the four pence from her. She was wearing the cloak I have seen in the mortuary, and she did not bring any parcel with her.
A Juror. - Did you ever know any other woman who was known as "Long Liz?" - No other "Long Liz" ever stayed at my house. I never heard her say she was assisted by her sister.
By Detective-inspector Reid. - I have never heard the name of Stride mentioned in connexion with her.
By a Juror. - The deceased had been away from my lodging-house for about three months, and only returned last Thursday. I have seen her frequently in the meantime, sometimes once a week, and at other times every other day.
The Coroner. - Did she tell you what she was doing? - She told me she was working among the Jews. She said she was living with a man in Fashion-street.
Did she speak English well? - She spoke English well, but she could speak Swedish as well.
When she spoke would you know she was a foreigner? - No. She spoke English as well as an Englishwoman. There was no communication between her and her own country people.
The Foreman. - Do you ever remember hearing of her hurting her foot? - No, sir.
The Coroner. - Did you ever hear of her having broken a limb in childhood? - No, sir.
By Detective-inspector Reid. - I have heard her speak two or three words in Swedish, but not carry on a conversation.
Catherine Lane deposed - I live at Flower and Dean-street, Spitalfields. I am a charwoman. I am married, and my husband is alive. His name is Patrick Lane, and he is a dock labourer. We have lived at the lodging-house since the 11th of February last. I have seen the body in the mortuary. I recognise it as "Long Liz," who used to live in the lodging-house lately. I have only seen her since Thursday, but I have known her six or seven months. I used to see her frequently in Fashion-street, where she was living, and I have seen her at the lodging-house. I spoke to her on Thursday and Saturday. I saw her between ten and eleven in the morning on Thursday.
Did she say why she was coming back to the lodging-house? - She said she had had a few words with her young man and left him. On Saturday I saw the deceased in the deputy’s room. I last saw her on Saturday between six and seven in the evening. She was then in the kitchen, and wore a long cloak and black bonnet. I saw the body first in the mortuary on Sunday afternoon last, and I recognised it as that of "Long Liz." I told the deputy. She did not tell me where she was going on the Saturday evening when she left the kitchen of the lodging-house, but she gave me a piece of velvet, and asked me to mind it until she came back. Supposing I wanted to leave anything at the lodging-house the deputy would mind it. I do not know why she asked me to look after the velvet, as the deputy would have done the same for her. - [Witness produced the velvet, and stated that she had seen the deceased with it on Friday.] I know deceased has sixpence when she left the lodgings. She showed me the sixpence, and said, that the deputy gave it to her. She did not say when she was coming back. She did not say she was coming back that evening.
Had she been drinking? - Not that I am aware of, sir.
There was nothing to show that she had been drinking? - No, sir.
Do you know of anyone that is likely to have injured her? - No, I do not, sir.
Have you heard her mention any man besides this man who was living with her? - No, sir. I heard her say she was a Swede. She said she formerly lived in Devonshire-street, Commercial-road. She never said she lived at Poplar. She told me that she had had a husband, and that he was dead. She never told me that any one had threatened her life. I am sure deceased is "Long Liz."
The Foreman. - Were you quite sure she was a foreign woman? - I could tell by her accent she was, as she did not bring her words out plainly.
The Coroner. - Have you ever heard her speak in her own language? - Yes; I have heard her speaking in Swedish with women in the street - the people with whom she worked.
A Juror. - Did you ever hear of her having a sister? - No.
You never heard of her leaving a child at her sister’s door? - No.
Charles Preston called, and examined. - I live at 32, Flower and Dean-street, and my occupation is that of a barber. I have been lodging at my present address for the past 18 months, and I have seen the deceased there. I have seen the body at the mortuary. I saw it on Sunday afternoon, and I identified it.
You are quite sure it is "Long Liz?" - Yes, sir.
When did you last see her alive? - In the kitchen of the lodging-house.
Was she dressed to go out? - Yes, and she asked me for a loan of a clothes brush just before going out.
What was she wearing? - She had on the jacket I have seen at the mortuary. She had no flower in her dress. She had a coloured striped silk handkerchief round her neck - the same one that I saw on the body. I did not see her pocket-handkerchief, and I cannot say whether she had two or not. She told me she was born in Stockholm, and came to England in a foreign gentleman’s service. She told me once she was about 35 years of age, that she had been married, and that her husband went down in the Princess Alice and was drowned. I have an indistinct recollection of her having said her husband was a seafaring man. I heard her say that she had a coffee-house in Chrisp-street, Poplar. She never told me she had been before the Thames Police Court. During the time I have known her I have only known her to have been taken into custody once. She was disorderly at the "Ten Bells," in Commercial-street, one Saturday evening, about four or five months ago.
Do you know of anyone that is likely to have injured her? - No, sir; no one.
Has she ever stated that she was frightened of being injured by anyone? - No; I never heard her mention the possibility of being injured. She did not say where she was going when she left on Saturday, nor when she was coming back.
Did she say whether she was coming back? - No; she did not mention that. It was towards the evening that she was locked up on the Saturday I have referred to. She has always given me to understand that her name was Elizabeth Stride. She never mentioned any sister, and that her mother was still alive in Sweden.
The Foreman. - Did she talk much about family? - No; only occasionally she would mention some Swedish game, or talk with any Swede who might come into the lodging-house when she was there.
Michael Kidney called, and examined. - I live at 38, Dorset-street, Spitalfields. I am a waterside labourer.
Have you seen the body in the mortuary? - Yes.
Is it the woman you have been living with? - Yes.
You have no doubt about it? - No doubt whatever.
Do you know what her name was? - Elizabeth Stride.
How long have you known her? - About three years.
How long has she been living with you? Nearly all the time.
Do you know what her age was? - Between 36 and 38. She told me she was 35. She told me that she was a Swede, and that she was born three miles from Stockholm. She said she first came to England to see it; but I have great doubt about this. She afterwards told me that she came to England with a family in a situation. She told me that she was a widow, and that her husband was a ship’s carpenter belonging to Sheerness.
Did he ever keep a coffee-house? - She told me he did at Chrisp-street, Poplar, and that he was drowned in the Princess Alice disaster.
Was the roof of her mouth defective? - Yes.
When did you last see the deceased alive? - Yesterday week. I left her on friendly terms in Commercial-street, as I was coming from work between nine and ten o’clock at night. I got home half an hour afterwards, and she had been in and gone out. I did not see her again until I saw the body at the mortuary.
Can you account for this sudden disappearance? Was she the worse for drink when you saw her? - No, perfectly sober.
Is there no reason that occurs to you why she should leave you like that when she had been living with you? - She was subject to go away if she thought she liked to.
She had left you before then? - During the three years I have known her she has been away five months.
And without any reason? - Without any reason that I know of. I treated her the same as I would a wife.
Do you know of anyone that she picked up with? - I have seen the address of the brother of the gentleman with whom she lived as a servant. It was somewhere near Hyde Park; but I cannot find it.
Having met you like that, probably she met some other man? - There was no man she liked better than me. It was drink that made her leave me on those occasions, and she always returned without my going after her. I do not believe she left me on Tuesday to take up with any other man.
Had she any money when she left you? - She ought to have had. I do not think she was without a shilling from the money I gave her. She could not have spent the money I gave her except in drink. I am in possession of information which would be of use to the police. If I had charge of the police I believe I could catch the murderer. I went to the Leman-street police station on Monday night the worse for drink, and asked for a young detective; but the inspector refused to allow me one. The witness Malcolm very much represents the appearance of the deceased woman. She told me that a policeman used to court her when she was staying at Hyde Park, and before she was married to Stride. She never had a child by me, and I never heard of her having a child by the policeman. She said she had nine children. Two were drowned on the Princess Alice, and the remainder were in a school on connexion with the Swedish Church on the other side of the Thames. I have heard her say that some friends of her husband had some of the children.
The Foreman of the Jury. - Do you think she was telling the truth when she said she was Swedish? - Yes; I firmly believed she was a Swede. The deceased and her husband were employed on the Princess Alice.
Mr. Edward Johnson, called and examined - I live at 100, Commercial-road, and am assistant to Drs. Kay and Blackwell at that address. On Sunday morning last, a few minutes past one o’clock, I received a call from Constable 436 H. After informing Dr. Blackwell, who was in bed, of the case, I accompanied the constable. In the yard adjoining No. 40 I was shown the figure of a woman lying on the left side. There was a crowd of people in the yard and some police. No one was touching her. There was very little light. What light there was came from the policeman’s lanterns. I examined the woman, and found a deep incision in the throat.
Was there blood coming from the wound? - No it had stopped. I also felt the body to see if it was warm, and found it all warm except the hands.
Was it you who undid the dress? - Yes, I undid the dress to see whether the chest was warm. I did not move the head at all. I left it exactly as I found it. The body itself was not moved while I was there. The knees were bent, and were nearer the wall than the head, but the feet may have been further away.
Did you notice the blood? - Yes; there was a stream of blood. There was very little clotted blood near the neck. It had run away in the direction away from the legs. I noticed blood on one of the hands when Dr. Phillips examined the body, but not at the time. The left hand was lying away from the body and the arm was bent. The right arm was also bent, and lying on the body. There was no mark of anyone having stopped on the stream of blood. The bonnet of the deceased was lying on the ground by the side of her head - beyond her head, in fact.
The Foreman of the Jury. - Were the outer gates closed when you got there?
Witness. - No; but they were closed shortly after.
Thomas Cormin, called and examined. - I live at 67, Plummer’s-road, Commercial-road. I am employed in the cocoa-nut business. On Saturday night last I was coming away from a friend’s at No. 16, Bath-gardens, Brady-street. I walked straight down Brady-street towards Whitechapel-road. I first walked on the right-hand side down Whitechapel-road towards Aldgate. I then crossed over the road to the left-hand side. When opposite No. 253 I saw a knife lying on the door step. No. 253, Whitechapel-road is a laundry. There are two steps, and the knife was on the bottom one. The knife I now see is the knife I found. The handkerchief produced was wrapped round the handle. It was folded and then wrapped round the handle. A policeman was coming towards me, and I called his attention to it. I did not touch either article. The policeman took it to Leman-street police-station, and I went with him. There were not many people about. I do not think I passed more than a dozen people between Brady-street and where I found the knife. It was comparatively light and the knife could easily be seen. I passed three policemen between Brady-street and the place where I found the knife.
By the Foreman of the Jury. - It was 12.30 on Monday morning.
Police-constable Drage, 282 H, deposed - On Monday morning, about half-past twelve, I was on fixed point duty at Great Gardiner-street, when I saw the last witness Cormin stooping down to something at 253, Whitechapel-road. He was then about 20 yards from me. I went towards him, and when I was a few yards from him he beckoned with his finger for me to come to him. He said, "Policeman, there is a knife lying there." When I looked I saw a long-bladed knife lying on the door step. It was lying in the shade of the lamp. I picked up the knife, and found it was smothered in blood.
Was it wet? - Dry. There was a handkerchief bound round the handle, tied with a bit of string. The handkerchief was also bloodstained. I asked the witness Corim how he came to see it. He said, "I was just looking down, and I saw something white." I asked him what he did out so late. He said, "I have been to a friend’s in Bath-gardens." He gave me his name and address, and he went to the police-station with me. The knife and handkerchief are those produced. The witness was sober and his manner natural. He said, "When I saw the knife it made my blood run cold. We see some funny things nowadays."
By a Juror. - I was passing the spot continually, and I would have noticed the handkerchief. A horse had fallen down at this place a few minutes previously and I assisted in getting it up.
By the Coroner. - There was only about half a dozen people, not a crowd. It might have been laid down during that time. I did not see it there. I had passed this particular step about a quarter of an hour previously.
Are you certain it was not there then? - I could not be positive about that. About an hour previously I stood near the street-door, and the landlady let out some female. It was not there then. I handed the knife and handkerchief to Dr. Phillips on Monday afternoon sealed and secured.
Dr. Phillips, called and examined. - I am police divisional surgeon, H division. I was called on Sunday morning last at twenty-past one to Leman-street police-station, and I was sent on to Berner-street to a yard at the side of a house, which ultimately proved to be a club-house. I found Detective-inspector Pinhorn and Acting Superintendent West in possession of a body, which had already been seen by Dr. Blackwell, who had arrived some time before me. The body was lying on its left side, face turned toward the wall, head toward the yard, feet toward the street, left arm extended from elbow, which held a packet of cachous in hand. Similar ones were in the gutter. I took them from her hand, and handed them to Dr. Blackwell. The right arm was lying over the body, and the back of the hand and wrist had on them clotted blood. The legs were drawn up, feet close to wall, body still warm, face warm, hands cold, legs quite warm, silk handkerchief round throat, slightly torn (so is my note, but I since find it is cut). I produce the handkerchief. This corresponded to the right angle of the jaw; throat deeply gashed, and an abrasion of the skin about an inch and a quarter diameter, apparently slightly stained with blood under right clavicle. These notes were taken for me, at my dictation, by Inspector Pinhorn, and the original I produce. "On October 1, at three p.m., at St. George’s Mortuary, present Dr. Blackwell and for part of the time Dr. Reigate and Dr. Blackwell’s assistant temperature being about 55 degrees." Dr. Blackwell and I made a post-mortem examination. Dr. Blackwell kindly consenting to make the dissection, and I took the following note: - "Rigor mortis still firmly marked. Mud on face and left side of the head. Matted on the hair and left side. We then removed the clothes. We found the body fairly nourished. Over both shoulders especially the right, from the front aspect under collar bones and in front of chest there is a bluish discolouration which I have watched and seen on two occasions since. Cut on neck; taking it from left to right there is a clean-cut incision six inches in length, the incision commencing two and a-half inches in a straight line below the angle of the jaw. Three-quarters of an inch over the undivided muscle then becoming deeper, about an inch, dividing the sheath and the vessels, ascending a little, and then grazing the muscle outside the cartilages on the left side of the neck, divides between the thuroid and cricoid cartilages, the cut being very clean, but indicating a slight direction downwards through resistance of the denser tissue and cartilages. The carotid artery on the left side, and the other vessels contained in the sheath were all cut through, save the posterior portion of the carotid to about a line or 1-12th of an inch in extent, which prevented the separation of the upper and lower portions of the artery. The cut through the tissues on the right side of the cartilages is more superficial, and tails off to about two inches below the right angle of the jaw. It is evident that the hemorrhage, which probably will be found to be the cause of death, was caused through the partial severance of the left carotid artery. Decomposition has commenced in the skin over the belly. It is green. Dark brown spots on anterior surface of left shin, and slight ulceration scab in front of skin on right leg. There is a deformity in the lower fifth of the bones of the right leg, which are not straight, but bow forward; there is thickening above the left ankle. The bones are here straighter. No external recent injury, save to neck. External genitals healthy; no sign of ulceration; no sores or worts. Soles of feet scaling, probably through want of cleanliness. The body being washed more thoroughly, I saw six, more or less scabbed healing sores on the left forehead. The lower lobe of the ear was torn, as if by the forcible removing or wearing through of an earring, but it was thoroughly healed. The right ear was pierced for an earring, but had not been so injured, and the earring was wanting. On removing the scalp there was no sign of bruising or extravasation of blood between it and the skull-cap. The skull was about one-sixth of an inch in thickness, and dense in texture. The brain was fairly normal. The left lung had old adhesions to the chest wall through its pleura, and the right slightly so adhered. This had old organised lymph on its surface. Both lungs were unusually pale. There was no fluid in the pericardium, a small deposit of fat outside the muscular substance deposited on the heart, round the base and larger vessels. The heart was small , left ventricle firmly contracted, right less so; no escape of blood on division of vessels, no clot in pulmonary artery or bronchial veins. Right ventricle full of dark clot left firmly contracted, so as to be absolutely empty. Valves healthy and competent: stomach large; mucous membrane only congested naturally as formed during digestion, contained partly digested food, apparently consisting of cheese, potato, and farinaceous edibles; spleen pale, and unusually oblong; left kidney large and anemic; left smaller, fairly healthy; liver fatty, portal veins congested. The teeth on the left lower jaw were absent." On Tuesday at the mortuary I went to observe the marks on the shoulders in the presence of Police-constable 318 H. I found the total circumference of the neck 12 ½ inches. I found in the pocket of the underskirt of the deceased a key as of a padlock, a small piece of lead pencil. A comb, and a broken piece of comb, a metal spoon, half-a-dozen large and one small button, and a hook as if off a dress, a piece of muslin, and one or two small pieces of paper. Examining her jacket, I found that although there was a slight amount of mud on the right side, the left was well plastered with mud.
A Juror. - You have not mentioned anything about the roof of the mouth. One witness said part of the roof of the mouth was gone. - That was not noticed.
The Coroner. - What was the cause of death? - The cause of death was undoubtedly from the loss of blood from the left carotid artery and the division of the windpipe.
Did you examine the blood at Berner-street carefully as to its direction and so forth? - Yes. The blood was near to the neck, and a few inches to the left side of where I saw it lying it was well dotted, and it had run down the waterway to within a few inches of the side entrance to the club-house.
Were there any spots of blood anywhere else? - I could trace none except that which I considered had been transplanted, if I may use the term, from the original flow of the neck. Roughly estimating it, I should say there was an unusual flow of blood, considering the stature and the nourishment of the body.
By a Juror. - I did notice a black mark on one of the legs of the deceased, but I could not say that it was due to an adder bite.
At this stage the inquest was further adjourned till to-morrow at two o’clock in the afternoon.
At Guildhall Police Court yesterday, Wm. Bull, 27, describing himself as a medical student, of 6, Stannard-road, Dalston, was charged, before Mr. Alderman Stone, on his own confession, with the murder of the woman, since identified as Kate Conway, in Mitre-square, Aldgate, on Sunday morning last.
Inspector George Izzard, of the City police, said - Last night, at 20 minutes to 11 o’clock, the prisoner came into the charge room of the Bishopsgate police station, and made a statement. After cautioning him two or three times I wrote down his statement, which was as follows: - "My name is William Bull. I reside at 6, Stannard-road, Dalston, and am a medical student at the London Hospital. I wish to give myself up for the murder in Aldgate on Saturday night last or Sunday morning, about two o’clock, I think. I met the woman in Aldgate, I went with her up a narrow street. I promised to give her half-a-crown, which I did while walking along. There was a second man, who came up and took the half-crown from her. I cannot endure this any longer. My poor head" (the prisoner here put his hand to his head on the front of the desk, and cried or pretended to cry). "I shall go mad. I have done it, and I must put up with it." I asked him what he had done with the clothing he was wearing on the night of the murder, and he said, "If you wish to know, they are in the Lea, and the knife I threw away." At this point the declined to say anything more. He was drunk. Part of his statement was heard by Major Henry Smith. Inquiries were made by Sergeant Myles, and he was informed that the prisoner was not known at the London Hospital. His father is a most respectable man, and says that his son was at home on Saturday night.
Mr. Alderman Stone: Do you ask any questions, Bull?
Prisoner: No. When I stated what I did I was drunk. I could not do it.
Inspector Izzard: I should like a few days’ remand to make inquiries, your worship.
The Alderman: Very well, I shall remand him.
The Prisoner: Can I have bail?
The Alderman: No, I shall not allow bail.
At the Marlborough-street Police Court yesterday, Colombo Espasto, 42, a ragged man, of Italian nationality, described as having no occupation, and as residing in Somer’s-street, Leather-lane, was charged, before Mr. Newton, with being disorderly and using threats to Mary Newland, of Cleveland-street.
The evidence was to the effect that at about half-past ten o’clock on Tuesday morning the prisoner went up to Mrs. Newland, in Great Portland-street, and, after making horrible grimaces, produced a clasp-knive, which he drew downwards in front of her, and apparently threatened to stab her. He shouted, and, when a man came up, he threatened him in the same manner, but was almost immediately arrested by a constable.
On a previous occasion the accused had threatened to stab Mrs. Newland.
When before the magistrate he made no defence, but handed him a ticket for breakfast at the St. Gile’s Mission, which had been given to him on his release from prison.
Sergeant Brewer, the gaoler, stated that on the 31st May last the accused was sentenced to three weeks’ imprisonment for riotous conduct.
Mr. Newton sentenced the accused to one month’s imprisonment, and ordered him to find two sureties in the sum of 10£. For his good behaviour for the next three months.
At Bow-street Police Court, yesterday, Henry Taylor, an Army Reserve man, was charged, before Mr. Vaughan, with assaulting Mary Ann Perry, and with threatening to stab her. The prosecutrix stated that the prisoner acted indecently in her presence at about three o’clock in Clare-market. She went on and spoke to her sister, and the prisoner came up and knocked her down. He also produced a clasp knife with a blade about three inches long, and threatened to rip her up as the others had been ripped up. A crowd collected, and after threatening to stab anyone who approached him he ran away, and was followed by a number of women calling out "Leather Apron." He got into Catherine-street when he was stopped by Benjamin Betts, 190 E, to whom he said, "Keep the cows off me, or I’ll rip them all open." Betts took the knife from him, and seeing that the prosecutrix was bleeding at the nose took him into custody for assaulting her. On the way to the station the crowd increased, and it was all that Betts, assisted by another constable, could do to get the prisoner to the station unmolested. There he was searched, and a razor was found on the accused.
Mr. Vaughan sentenced the prisoner to two months’ imprisonment for the assault, and ordered him to find one surety in 5£. to keep the peace for three months.
Annie Adams, 33, an unfortunate, was charged before Mr. Bros, at the Dalston Police Court, with being disorderly in Cleveland-road, Islington. The case was proved by Constable Driscoll, 272 N, but the prisoner protested against the charge. She said she was simply going home when a man threatened her. She said to the man, "I believe you are Leather Apron. I shall call a policeman." She screamed "Murder" and "Police." The constable came up and searched the man and then he took her into custody. Mr. Bros said such noises could not be tolerated at such an hour (two o’clock in the morning), and he should fine the woman 5s.
A Bath correspondent says that from further inquiries made there it appears that the conflicting evidence of identification in the Berner-street case could be decided if witnesses were called from bath. The woman Watts or Stride, could be identified by several Bath persons and also by members of the police force, as she had been charged by the Bath police with drunkenness, and is well known to some members of the force.
Sir, - In the absence of any definite clue to the perpetrator of the recent dreadful atrocities at the East-end of London, it seems desirable to consider the question from the point of view of what, for the want of a better term, I may call speculative jurisprudence. It will be admitted that, if suspicion can be, with even reasonable conclusiveness, focused on a particular and, if possible, small class of persons, there may be a greater probability of the speedy detection of the perpetrator than a more or less vague inquiry directed over a large and densely-populated area. At the same time, assuming my hypothesis to be fallacious, there is no reason why, whilst investigating it within its own narrow limits, the wider inquiries now being pursued should be diminished. There is, I think, a reasonably general consensus of educated opinion that the late several murders, with their exceptionally concomitant horrors, are the work of one and the same person. Inquiry has also fairly established that the theory suggested that the murders and mutilations were to secure a particular organ of the victim’s body is untenable. Robbery, or the gratification of animal passion, or revenge in its ordinary personal acceptation, being beyond the question, the solution of motive may have to be sought in some form of mania arising from one or other, possibly, of the following causes, viz. : Some wrong, real or imaginary sustained at the hands of the class to which the poor murdered women belonged, or an insane belief as to the good to result to society by their extermination. It is observed that homicidal mania, in the sense of an unrestrainedly desire to kill merely, is not here present, the tendency being directed against a particular class exclusively. These questions are, however, for the moment comparatively unimportant beside the more pressing one as to the direction in which the murderer or homicidal maniac is to be sought. For reasons which I shall state concisely, I venture to suggest that the perpetrator of these several outrages is a man of foreign origin. The grounds for this conclusion are:
( a ) That in the whole record of criminal trials in England there is, I believe, no instance of a series of crimes of murder and mutilation of the particular character here involved committed by a person of English origin, whereas there are instances, in some foreign countries, of crimes of this particularly horrible character. ( b ) The celebrity with which the crimes were committed is inconsistent with the ordinary English phlegmatic nature, but entirely consistent with the evidence given in some, more or less, similar cases abroad. ( c ) The mutilation and removal of certain organs involved a degree of anatomical knowledge and skill which, according to high medical opinion, would not be likely to be possessed by an English slaughter man, to whom at first suspicion pointed; whereas this special skill is possessed to a not inconsiderable degree by foreigners engaged in the charcuterie and other kindred trades abroad. ( d ) The character of the knife used, as suggested by the medical evidence at the inquests, is similar in kind to the instrument known as a French "cook’s knife," or at least is, in the circumstances, more consistent with its use by a foreigner than an Englishman. In offering these opinions I do not desire to suggest, what, indeed, my experience negatives, that a foreigner, as such, has any monopoly of brutality over an Englishman. There are forms of brutality which are committed by Englishman which a Frenchman or an Italian, for instance, would never dream of. But there are also idiosyncrasies of crime which are, as it were, peculiar to particular countries, both in their conception and mode of execution.
I remain, Sir, your obedient servant,
EDWARD DILLON LEWIS
At the resumed inquest on the remains of the woman murdered in Berner-street on Sunday morning, evidence was given which proved pretty conclusively that the deceased woman's name was, as at first stated, Elizabeth Stride, in spite of Mrs. Malcolm's assertions to the contrary. The second victim was fully identified yesterday by Kelly, the man with whom she had cohabited, and by her sister, a Mrs. Frost, or Gold, as Catherine Eddowes, better known as Kate Conway, from her association with a man named Conway.
The examination by Drs. Bond and Hibbert of the mutilated female trunk found in the vaults of the new police offices at Whitehall took place early yesterday morning, but the detailed results are reserved by the surgeons until the inquest, which opens on Monday next. Meanwhile it is understood that the arm found in the Thames fits the trunk, and that the dress material enveloping the much-decomposed torso was of a rich and costly kind.
Three more arrests were effected late last night in connexion with the recent atrocities in the East-end. Two of the men were apprehended on suspicion in Shadwell, and one was arrested, amidst much excitement, in the Whitechapel-road. In each case the men were conveyed to the Leman-street police-station, where inquires were instituted into their antecedents. No importance was attached to one of the arrests at Shadwell, but as regards the other the circumstances warrant the gravest suspicion. The prisoner is a Scandinavian, and states that he intended to sail for New York to-day. He was arrested by Sergeant Adams, of the H division, on the information of a lad, who said he had seen him change his clothes several times recently, therefore the police consider it necessary to detain him until his identity is established. The third person was seen to leave a tavern in Commercial-road, near Great Gardiner-street, and for some reason at present unexplained a large crowd followed him. He hired a cab, and ordered the driver to take him to Finsbury-square, but Constable Barnes, 343 H, who was doing duty in the vicinity, entered the cab and the man was driven to the Leman-street station, where he was detained on suspicion. He was intoxicated. It is stated that the Scandinavian was reported to have stabbed a policeman who went to the assistance of a woman who was screaming for help in a narrow courtway near Ratcliff-highway, but from inquires made by the City Police there appears to be no foundation at present for the rumour.
Dr. Bond, the divisional police surgeon, and Dr. Hibbert, his assistant, yesterday morning commenced their examination of the human remains found on Tuesday on the site of the new police headquarters in Whitehall. The medical gentlemen arrived at the mortuary -a mortuary only in name, for it consist only of an untenanted shop and house, situate at 20, Millbank-street, about 300 yards from the House of Lords - shortly after seven o'clock, and, without delay, commenced their unenviable task, and continued engaged until a quarter to nine, when the examination was completed, having lasted about an hour and a half. The examination was necessarily limited, in consequence of the advanced state of decomposition in which the trunk was found, but, nevertheless, it was of a searching character. Dr. Bond, who conducted the autopsy, declined to give any particulars of the results before making the official report to the authorities. It is understood, however, that the surgeons came to the conclusion that the arm which was washed up by the Thames near Pimlico, and which had been conveyed to the Westminster mortuary from Ebury-street, where it has been preserved, fitted into the trunk found at Whitehall. It is also stated that the cord tied round the limb found in the river and a portion which was used to tie up the parcel are similar. At the conclusion of the examination an order was given to have the clothing fully inspected. This duty was accordingly undertaken by the police, who stated that what little clothing remained on the trunk was covered in vermin. The clothing having been disinfected was subjected to a close search, and adhering to one portion was found a piece of newspaper saturated with blood. It bore no date, but that will easily be ascertained. The dress-stuff proved to be a rich flowered silk underskirt, which indicates that the unfortunate victim was not one of the poorer class of society. Nothing was discovered which pointed to the cause of death, but the doctors are of opinion that the woman must have been murdered about three weeks ago, the advanced state of decomposition being due to exposure.
The doctors are preparing an elaborate report of the whole case, which will be submitted at the inquest to be held in the Session-house, Westminster, on Monday next.
Soon after six o'clock last evening considerable excitement was caused in the neighbourhood of Ratcliff-highway by the report that a man was roaming about there in a suspicious manner with bloodstains on his coat. A crowd gathered and followed the individual referred to, uttering threatening cries. He was respectably dressed in a light suit, was apparently about 30 years of age, and had somewhat the appearance of an American. He took shelter in a public-house, in company with another man to whom he was known; but the crowd still hung about the doors. At last a policeman appeared, who advised the man to go with him to the station and wait there until the noisy crowd had dispersed. This the man readily did, accompanying the constable to the King David-place police station, where he was allowed to sit in an ante-room. The inspector on duty thought it necessary to question the man, whose replies were considered quite satisfactory. The stains on his coat were carefully scrutinised, but were caused apparently only by grease. At any rate they were not bloodstains. For a considerable time the police-station was besieged by curious spectators, who at last got tired of seeing nothing, and so dispersed. The man, who said his name was John Lock, and his age thirty-two, made the following statement to a reporter: "I am now a sailor, and belong to the Naval Reserve. I and my wife have been in Australia for some years, and we came to England on the 28th April last. I left a friend's house at 85, Balcombe-street, Dorset-square, this (Wednesday) morning, and made my way to the docks at Wapping, for the purpose of finding a ship. I was walking along Commercial-road to go down Devonshire-road to see a man whom I knew nine years ago, when all at once I met a friend. He said to me, 'Hulloa, old man, what is all this?' and he turned round to the crowd which was following me and told them to go away. I looked round and saw that I had been followed. I said we would go up Commercial-road and have a drink at a public-house, the 'Victory,' I think. While we were there the crowd stopped outside, calling 'Leather Apron' and 'Jack the Ripper,' and someone was good enough to send for a couple of policemen. When I got to the station I explained what I had been doing." "But," said the reporter, "the people outside say that you have bloodstains on your coat and collar." "Oh," replied Lock, smiling, "those stains are old paint stains, and that only shows what the public will do now." Up to this point he did not seem to understand that he was at liberty to leave the station, but the officer explained to him that he might go on his way as soon as he liked, but that it would be wise to wait until the crowd had dispersed.
Mr. Matthews was engaged for several hours yesterday at the Home Office with reference to the murders in the East-end, and had prolonged interviews with Sir Charles Warren and others on the subject, during which the course of action already taken by the police was fully considered, as well as the steps to be taken in future with a view to the discovery of the criminal. Mr. Matthews is understood to have directed that no power in the hands of the police should be left untried, and no clue, however unpromising, neglected. The understanding between the Metropolitan and City police is most cordial.
Yesterday the large force of police and detectives drafted into Whitechapel made house-to-house visitation and left copies of the following handbill.
Julia Thompson, 27, a respectably-dressed woman, described as a tailoress, of Stephen-street, Tottenham-court-road, was charged, before Mr. Newton, with behaving in a disorderly manner in Rathbone-place, Oxford-street.-Constable Bennett, 413 D, said at about a quarter-past one yesterday morning he heard the prisoner and a man having some conversation about the Whitechapel murders. They were talking in a loud tone, and shouted, and created a great disturbance. He advised them to go away, and the man did so, but the woman said she was not a street walker, and that he had no right to interfere with her. She shouted and hallooed, and seemed to be very much annoyed at his speaking to her. She would not go away, and he took her into custody.-In reply to the magistrate, the prisoner denied that she in any way interfered with the policeman, or did anything wrong. It was true that a man spoke to her about the Whitechapel murders, and she remarked that "the murderer might be here," but she neither did nor said anything to call for interference by the police.-Frederick Henderson said that he had been to Westminster to obtain some news, and as he paced Rathbone-place on his way back he noticed the policeman standing at the corner, and he caught the words "Whitechapel murders." He heard the woman call a man a dirty beast, and then the constable told them to go away, which the man did. The officer walked along a short distance, when he turned back, ordered the woman to go away, seized her by the shoulders, kicked her with his knee, and remarked, "Now will you go away?"-Mr. Newton : Did she go?-The Witness : No sir, she turned round and said, "Why do you treat me like that?" The witness, continuing, said he remonstrated with the constable, and followed on to the station, the officer informing him if he did not shut up he would assault him also. He (the witness) got somewhat excited at the treatment the woman received.-The constable re-called, in reply to the magistrate, said that the affair had been in progress ten minutes before the arrival of Mr. Henderson, and there was no one present but himself and the man he had referred to. At the station Mr. Henderson accused him before the inspector of having kicked the woman, and when he (the constable) suggested that a doctor should be sent for to examine her, Mr. Henderson said that he kicked her with his knee.-Mr. Newton (to the prisoner) : It was very foolish of you not to go away.-The Prisoner : Yes, I know ; but he would not let me go either way.-Mr Newton : Yes, but according to the witness the constable told you to go away, and you did not do so. Go away now.
Abigail O'Mara, 28, was charged on remand with assaulting and stabbing Constable Cook, 240 H, while in the execution of his duty.-The officer stated that on the night of Tuesday week he was in St. George-street and saw the prisoner quarrelling with another woman. He separated them and got the other woman away. The accused refused to go away, and he took her into custody. O'Mara then stabbed him in the face with some knitting-needles that she had in her hand. Another constable came to his assistance, and they took prisoner to the police-station. Witness was wounded on the nose, cheek, and lip, one of the needles having gone through the lip.-Corroborative evidence having been given and previous convictions having been proved, Mr. Lushington sentenced the prisoner to six months' hard labour.