FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 1888
At the Westminster Police-court, yesterday, a Mrs. Potter, living in Spencer-buildings, Westminster, applied to Mr. D'Eyncourt, stating that she had reason to fear that the arm found in the river off Grosvenor-road belonged to her daughter Emma, a girl seventeen years of age, of rather weak intellect, who had been missing from home since Saturday morning at eleven o'clock. Her daughter had given her some trouble by going in the streets at night, and at this time of the year she was particularly troublesome. At two o'clock on Saturday morning a policeman brought her home, and applicant, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon, went out, leaving her asleep on a couch. On her return her daughter had gone, and from that time she had seen nothing of her, although she had diligently pursued inquiries and had been to places the girl frequented. She had been to workhouses and infirmaries without tidings, and the only item of information she could glean was from a policeman who knew the girl by sight. He last saw her at half-past five on Saturday evening, in the neighbourhood of Buckingham-gate. Applicant said she had been to see Dr. Neville, the acting divisional surgeon of police, and he remarked that the particulars she gave him of her daughter would in every way correspond with the arm which had been found. The doctor questioned her particularly as to the stature and appearance of her daughter, and, having given his opinion, referred her to the police-court. - The applicant furnished the following description of the missing girl: Tall and well-formed, and of rather dark complexion, long arms, and a short nail on the left hand; attired in a brown dress, black jacket, white hat with black velvet band and white lace in front, high lace-up boots.
THE DETECTION OF CRIME.
[TELEGRAM FROM OUR CORRESPONDENT]
A telegram from Bucharest announces that Queen Natalie of Servia was received in audience yesterday by the King and Queen of Romania.
It is probably not generally known that when a few years ago certain reforms were introduced in the London police-system, the Criminal Investigation Department applied to Vienna for particulars of the Criminal Police-organisation in this city. In presence of the "Whitechapel murders," I have thought it might be of interest to ascertain how the Vienna police-authorities have managed to detect the authors of almost every great crime committed in Vienna for the last fifteen years. I find it is due in the first place to the strict enforcement of special regulations certifying the identity of all individuals staying in Vienna for more than twenty-four hours, and then to the nocturnal raids made periodically by the police. The Austrian officials have, however, a great pull over their English confreres. On suspicion of the vaguest kind they can effect wholesale arrests. Individual liberty is not taken into account, and it happens not unfrequently that, after some mysterious crime, half a neighbourhood is placed under police supervision. All strangers, immediately after their arrival in Vienna or any other Austrian town, are presented with a ticket, whereon, in accordance with prescribed headings, they have to give a full account of themselves. Hotel-managers and lodging-house keepers are, in some measure, responsible for the strangers staying on their premises. They may at any moment be called upon to furnish ample particulars concerning the movements and pursuits of all persons harboured under their roof. Residents, whether native or foreign, are subject to a supervision no less severe. Every change of abode, every temporary absence, every domestic change in the household, is registered with the greatest exactitude. The house-porter in private dwellings is expected to be posted up in the sayings and doings of every inmate, and, should circumstances require it, to give information to the authorities. Furthermore, scores of detectives lounge about the streets, cafés, and places of public resort. They go about in the tramways, omnibuses, local trains, and steamers - they are ubiquitous. There is no escaping their vigilant eye and quick ear. The nocturnal police-raids have in numerous cases proved to be of the greatest advantage. The operating force - sometimes several hundred strong - assembles at various points, and, at a given moment, spreads in detachments over every Quarter of the Capital. They sweep through the streets, and, like Avenging Angels, their object seems to be to drive forth from Paradise fallen Humanity. They visit the "slums," the public-houses, and the night-refuges of the poor. They rouse the sleepers, huddled together by hundreds under the same roof, and submit them to a rigorous cross-examination. They ferret out the roofless vagrants reposing under bridges and viaducts, or in public gardens and squares. Out-posts are stationed beyond the city-confines to prevent the escape of fugitive vagabonds, and every individual who cannot convince the raiders instantly of his innocence is marched off to the lock-up. Whenever a mysterious crime is committed one of these nocturnal raids is organised, and frequently it not only leads to the capture of the law-breaker, but brings to Justice many a minor offender.
Yesterday Mr. Wynne Baxter, coroner, resumed, at the Working Lads' Institute, Whitechapel-road, his adjourned inquiry relative to the death of Annie Chapman, who was murdered in the back yard of 29, Hanbury-street, on Saturday morning last.
The police were represented by Inspectors Abberline, Helson, and Chandler.
Joseph Chandler, Inspector H Division Metropolitan Police, deposed: On Saturday morning, at ten minutes past six, I was on duty in Commercial-street. At the corner of Hanbury-street I saw several men running. I beckoned to them. One of them said, "Another woman has been murdered." I at once went with him to 29, Hanbury-street, and through the passage into the yard. There was no one in the yard. I saw the body of a woman lying on the ground on her back. Her head was towards the back wall of the house, nearly two feet from the wall, at the bottom of the steps, but six or nine inches away from them. The face was turned to the right side, and the left arm was resting on the left breast. The right hand was lying down the right side. Deceased's legs were drawn up, and the clothing was above the knees. A portion of the intestines, still connected with the body, were lying above the right shoulder, with some pieces of skin. There were also some pieces of skin on the left shoulder. The body was lying parallel with the fencing dividing the two yards. I remained there and sent for the divisional surgeon, Mr. Phillips, and to the police-station for the ambulance and for further assistance. When the constables arrived I cleared the passage of people, and saw that no one touched the body until the doctor arrived. I obtained some sacking to cover it before the arrival of the surgeon, who came at about half-past six o'clock, and he, having examined the body, directed that it should be removed to the mortuary. After the body had been taken away I examined the yard, and found a piece of coarse muslin, a small tooth comb, and a pocket hair comb in a case. They were lying near the feet of the woman. A portion of an envelope was found near her head, which contained two pills.
What was on the envelope? - On the back there was a seal with the words, embossed in blue, "Sussex Regiment." The other part was torn away. On the other side there was a letter "M" in writing.
A man's handwriting? - I should imagine so.
Any postage stamp? - No. There was a postal stamp "London, Aug. 3, 1888." That was in red. There was another black stamp, which was indistinct.
Any other marks on the envelope? - There were also the letters "Sp" lower down, as if some one had written "Spitalfields." The other part was gone. There were no other marks.
Did you find anything else in the yard? - There was a leather apron, lying in the yard, saturated with water. It was about two feet from the water tap.
Was it shown to the doctor? - Yes. There was also a box, such as is commonly used by casemakers for holding nails. It was empty. There was also a piece of steel, flat, which has since been identified by Mrs. Richardson as the spring of her son's leggings.
Where was that found? - It was close to where the body had been. The apron and nail box have also been identified by her as her property. The yard was paved roughly with stones in parts; in other places it was earth.
Was there any appearance of a struggle there? - No.
Are the palings strongly erected? - No; to the contrary.
Could they support the weight of a man getting over them? - No doubt they might.
Is there any evidence of anybody having got over them? - No. Some of them in the adjoining yard have been broken since. They were not broken then.
You have examined the adjoining yard? - Yes.
Was there any staining as of blood on any of the palings? - Yes, near the body.
Was it on any of the other yards? - No.
Were there no other marks? - There were marks discovered on the wall of No. 25. They were noticed on Tuesday afternoon. They have been seen by Dr. Phillips.
Were there any drops of blood outside the yard of No. 29? - No; every possible examination has been made, but we could find no trace of them. The blood-stains at No. 29 were in the immediate neighbourhood of the body only. There were also a few spots of blood on the back wall, near the head of the deceased, 2ft from the ground. The largest spot was of the size of a sixpence. They were all close together. I assisted in the preparation of the plan produced, which is correct.
Did you search the body? - I searched the clothing at the mortuary. The outside jacket - a long black one, which came down to the knees - had bloodstains round the neck, both upon the inside and out, and two or three spots on the left arm. The jacket was hooked at the top, and buttoned down the front. By the appearance of the garment there did not seem to have been any struggle. A large pocket was worn under the skirt (attached by strings), which I produce. It was torn down the front and also at the side, and it was empty. Deceased wore a black skirt. There was a little blood on the outside. The two petticoats were stained very little; the two bodices were stained with blood round the neck, but they had not been damaged. There was no cut in the clothing at all. The boots were on the feet of deceased. They were old. No part of the clothing was torn. The stockings were not bloodstained.
Did you see John Richardson? - I saw him about a quarter to seven o'clock. He told me he had been to the house that morning about a quarter to five. He said he came to the back door and looked down to the cellar, to see if all was right, and then went away to his work.
Did he say anything about cutting his boot? - No.
Did he say that he was sure the woman was not there at that time? - Yes.
By the Jury: The back door opens outwards into the yard, and swung on the left hand to the palings where the body was. If Richardson were on the top of the steps he might not have seen the body. He told me he did not go down the steps.
The Foreman of the Jury: Reference has been made to the Sussex Regiment and the pensioner. Are you going to produce the man Stanley?
Witness: We have not been able to find him as yet.
The Foreman: He is a very important witness. There is evidence that he has associated with the woman week after week. It is important that he should be found.
Witness: There is nobody that can give us the least idea where he is. The parties were requested to communicate with the police if he came back. Every inquiry has been made, but nobody seems to know anything about him.
The Coroner: I should think if that pensioner knows his own business he will come forward himself.
Sergeant Baugham, 31 H, stated that he conveyed the body of the deceased to the mortuary on the ambulance.
Are you sure that you took every portion of the body away with you? - Yes.
Where did you deposit the body? - In the shed, still on the ambulance. I remained with it until Inspector Chandler arrived. Detective-Sergeant Thicke viewed the body, and I took down the description. There were present two women, who came to identify the body, and they described the clothing. They came from 35, Dorset-street.
Who touched the clothing? - Sergeant Thicke. I did not see the women touch the clothing nor the body. I did not see Sergeant Thicke touch the body.
Inspector Chandler, recalled, said he reached the mortuary a few minutes after seven. The body did not appear to have been disturbed. He did not stay until the doctor arrived. Police-constable 376 H was left in charge, with the mortuary keeper.
Robert Marne, the mortuary keeper and an inmate of the Whitechapel Union Workhouse, said he received the body at seven o'clock on Saturday morning. He remained at the mortuary until Dr. Phillips came. The door of the mortuary was locked except when two nurses from an infirmary came and undressed the body. No one else touched the corpse. He gave the key into the hands of the police.
The Coroner: The fact is that Whitechapel does not possess a mortuary. The place is not a mortuary at all. We have no right to take a body there. It is simply a shed belonging to the workhouse officials. Juries have over and over again reported the matter to the District Board of Works. The East-end, which requires mortuaries more than anywhere else, is most deficient. Bodies drawn out of the river have to be put in boxes, and very often they are brought to this workhouse arrangement all the way from Wapping. A workhouse inmate is not the proper man to take care of a body in such an important matter as this.
The foreman of the jury called attention to the fact that a fund to provide a reward had been opened by residents in the neighbourhood, and that Mr. Montagu, M.P., had offered a reward of £100. If the Government also offered a reward some information might be forthcoming.
The Coroner: I do not speak with any real knowledge, but I am told that the Government have determined not to give any rewards in future, not with the idea to economise but because the money does not get into right channels.
To Witness: Were you present when the doctor was making his post-mortem? - Yes.
Did you see the doctor find the handkerchief produced? - It was taken off the body. I picked it up from off the clothing, which was in the corner of the room. I gave it to Dr. Phillips, and he asked me to put it in some water, which I did.
Did you see the handkerchief taken off the body? - I did not. The nurses must have taken it off the throat.
How do you know? - I don't know.
Then you are guessing? - I am guessing.
The Coroner: That is all wrong, you know. (To the jury). He is really not the proper man to have been left in charge.
Timothy Donovan, the deputy of the lodging-house, 35, Dorset-street, was recalled.
You have seen that handkerchief? - I recognise it as one which the deceased used to wear. She bought it of a lodger, and she was wearing it when she left the lodging-house. She was wearing it three-corner ways, placed round her neck, with a black woollen scarf underneath. It was tied in front with one knot.
The Foreman of the Jury: Would you recognise Ted Stanley, the pensioner?
A Juryman: Stanley is not the pensioner.
The Coroner (to witness): Do you know the name of Stanley?
The Foreman: He has been mentioned, and also "Harry the Hawker."
Witness: I know "Harry the Hawker."
The Coroner, having referred to the evidence, said: It may be an inference - there is no actual evidence - that the pensioner was called Ted Stanley.
The Foreman said he referred to the man who came to see the deceased regularly. The man ought to be produced.
The Coroner (to witness): Would you recognise the pensioner? - Yes.
When did you see him last? - On Saturday.
Why did you not then send him to the police? - Because he would not stop.
The Foreman: What was he like? - He had a soldierly appearance. He dressed differently at times - sometimes gentlemanly.
A Juror: He is not Ted Stanley.
Mr. George Baxter Phillips, divisional-surgeon of police, said: On Saturday last I was called by the police at 6.20 a.m. to 29, Hanbury-street, and arrived at half-past six. I found the body of the deceased lying in the yard on her back, on the left hand of the steps that lead from the passage. The head was about 6in in front of the level of the bottom step, and the feet were towards a shed at the end of the yard. The left arm was across the left breast, and the legs were drawn up, the feet resting on the ground, and the knees turned outwards. The face was swollen and turned on the right side, and the tongue protruded between the front teeth, but not beyond the lips; it was much swollen. The small intestines and other portions were lying on the right side of the body on the ground above the right shoulder, but attached. There was a large quantity of blood, with a part of the stomach above the left shoulder. I searched the yard and found a small piece of coarse muslin, a small-tooth comb, and a pocket-comb, in a paper case, near the railing. They had apparently been arranged there. I also discovered various other articles, which I handed to the police. The body was cold, except that there was a certain remaining heat, under the intestines, in the body. Stiffness of the limbs was not marked, but it was commencing. The throat was dissevered deeply. I noticed that the incision of the skin was jagged, and reached right round the neck. On the back wall of the house, between the steps and the palings, on the left side, about 18in from the ground, there were about six patches of blood, varying in size from a sixpenny piece to a small point, and on the wooden fence there were smears of blood, corresponding to where the head of the deceased laid, and immediately above the part where the blood had mainly flowed from the neck, which was well clotted. Having received instructions soon after two o'clock on Saturday afternoon, I went to the labour-yard of the Whitechapel Union for the purpose of further examining the body and making the usual post-mortem investigation. I was surprised to find that the body had been stripped and was laying ready on the table. It was under great disadvantage I made my examination. As on many occasions I have met with the same difficulty, I now raise my protest, as I have before, that members of my profession should be called upon to perform their duties under these inadequate circumstances.
The Coroner: The mortuary is not fitted for a post-mortem examination. It is only a shed. There is no adequate convenience, and nothing fit, and at certain seasons of the year it is dangerous to the operator.
The Foreman: I think we can all endorse the doctor's view of it.
The Coroner: As a matter of fact there is no public mortuary from the City of London up to Bow. There is one at Mile-end, but it belongs to the workhouse, and is not used for general purposes.
Examination resumed: The body had been attended to since its removal to the mortuary, and probably partially washed. I noticed a bruise over the right temple. There was a bruise under the clavicle, and there were two distinct bruises, each the size of a man's thumb, on the fore part of the chest. The stiffness of the limbs was then well-marked. The finger nails were turgid. There was an old scar of long standing on the left of the frontal bone. On the left side the stiffness was more noticeable, and especially in the fingers, which were partly closed. There was an abrasion over the bend of the first joint of the ring finger, and there were distinct markings of a ring or rings - probably the latter. There were small sores on the fingers. The head being opened showed that the membranes of the brain were opaque and the veins loaded with blood of a dark character. There was a large quantity of fluid between the membranes and the substance of the brain. The brain substance was unusually firm, and its cavities also contained a large amount of fluid. The throat had been severed. The incisions of the skin indicated that they had been made from the left side of the neck on a line with the angle of the jaw, carried entirely round and again in front of the neck, and ending at a point about midway between the jaw and the sternum or breast bone on the right hand. There were two distinct clean cuts on the body of the vertebrae on the left side of the spine. They were parallel to each other, and separated by about half an inch. The muscular structures between the side processes of bone of the vertebrae had an appearance as if an attempt had been made to separate the bones of the neck. There are various other mutilations of the body, but I am of opinion that they occurred subsequently to the death of the woman and to the large escape of blood from the neck. The witness, pausing, said: I am entirely in your hands, sir, but is it necessary that I should describe the further mutilations. From what I have said I can state the cause of death.
The Coroner: The object of the inquiry is not only to ascertain the cause of death, but the means by which it occurred. Any mutilation which took place afterwards may suggest the character of the man who did it. Possibly you can give us the conclusions to which you have come respecting the instrument used.
The Witness: You don't wish for details. I think if it is possible to escape the details it would be advisable. The cause of death is visible from injuries I have described.
The Coroner: You have kept a record of them?
Witness: I have.
The Coroner: Supposing any one is charged with the offence, they would have to come out then, and it might be a matter of comment that the same evidence was not given at the inquest.
Witness: I am entirely in your hands.
The Coroner: We will postpone that for the present. You can give your opinion as to how the death was caused.
Witness: From these appearances I am of opinion that the breathing was interfered with previous to death, and that death arose from syncope, or failure of the heart's action, in consequence of the loss of blood caused by the severance of the throat.
Was the instrument used at the throat the same as that used at the abdomen? - Very probably. It must have been a very sharp knife, probably with a thin, narrow blade, and at least six to eight inches in length, and perhaps longer.
Is it possible that any instrument used by a military man, such as a bayonet, would have done it? - No; it would not be a bayonet.
Would it have been such an instrument as a medical man uses for post-mortem examinations? - The ordinary post-mortem case perhaps does not contain such a weapon.
Would any instrument that slaughterers employ have caused the injuries? - Yes; well ground down.
Would the knife of a cobbler or of any person in the leather trades have done? - I think the knife used in those trades would not be long enough in the blade.
Was there any anatomical knowledge displayed? - I think there was. There were indications of it. My own impression is that that anatomical knowledge was only less displayed or indicated in consequence of haste. The person evidently was hindered from making a more complete dissection in consequence of the haste.
Was the whole of the body there? - No; the absent portions being from the abdomen.
Are those portions such as would require anatomical knowledge to extract? - I think the mode in which they were extracted did show some anatomical knowledge.
You do not think they could have been lost accidentally in the transit of the body to the mortuary? - I was not present at the transit. I carefully closed up the clothes of the woman. Some portions had been excised.
How long had the deceased been dead when you saw her? - I should say at least two hours, and probably more; but it is right to say that it was a fairly cold morning, and that the body would be more apt to cool rapidly from its having lost the greater portion of its blood.
Was there any evidence of any struggle? - No; not about the body of the woman. You do not forget the smearing of blood about the palings.
In your opinion did she enter the yard alive? - I am positive of it. I made a thorough search of the passage, and I saw no trace of blood, which must have been visible had she been taken into the yard.
You were shown the apron? - I saw it myself. There was no blood upon it. It had the appearance of not having been unfolded recently.
You were shown some staining on the wall of No. 25, Hanbury-street? - Yes; that was yesterday morning. To the eye of a novice I have no doubt it looks like blood. I have not been able to trace any signs of it. I have not been able to finish my investigation. I am almost convinced I shall not find any blood.
We have not had any result of your examination of the internal organs. Was there any disease? - Yes. It was not important as regards the cause of death. Disease of the lungs was of long standing, and there was disease of the membranes of the brain. The stomach contained a little food.
Was there any appearance of the deceased having taken much alcohol? - No. There were probably signs of great privation. I am convinced she had not taken any strong alcohol for some hours before her death.
Were any of these injuries self-inflicted? - The injuries which were the immediate cause of death were not self-inflicted.
Was the bruising you mentioned recent? - The marks on the face were recent, especially about the chin and sides of the jaw. The bruise upon the temple and the bruises in front of the chest were of longer standing, probably of days. I am of opinion that the person who cut the deceased's throat took hold of her by the chin, and then commenced the incision from left to right.
Could that be done so instantaneously that a person could not cry out?
Witness: By pressure on the throat no doubt it would be possible.
The Forman: There would probably be suffocation.
The Coroner: The thickening of the tongue would be one of the signs of suffocation? - Yes. My impression is that she was partially strangled.
Witness added that the handkerchief produced was, when found amongst the clothing, saturated with blood. A similar article was round the throat of the deceased when he saw her early in the morning at Hanbury-street.
It had not the appearance of having been tied on afterwards? - No.
Sarah Simonds, a resident nurse at the Whitechapel Infirmary, stated that, in company of the senior nurse, she went to the mortuary on Saturday, and found the body of the deceased on the ambulance in the yard. It was afterwards taken into the shed, and placed on the table. She was directed by Inspector Chandler to undress it, and she placed the clothes in a corner. She left the handkerchief round the neck. She was sure of this. They washed stains of blood from the body. It seemed to have run down from the throat. She found the pocket tied round the waist. The strings were not torn. There were no tears or cuts in the clothes.
Inspector Chandler: I did not instruct the nurses to undress the body and to wash it.
The inquiry was adjourned until Wednesday.
No fresh arrests were made yesterday by the police in connection with the Whitechapel murders. It was regarded as possible that, after the statements made at the inquest, the pensioner who is spoken of as having been so frequently in the company of the deceased woman Chapman might have come forward to give evidence. Last night, however, he had not placed himself in communication with the police, nor had the efforts of the authorities to discover his whereabouts or establish his exact identity proved successful.
Inspector Chandler was the first witness examined yesterday at the adjourned inquest relative to the murder of Annie Chapman in Whitechapel. Having described the appearance of the body when he was called to the scene, he said he found near the woman's head a portion of an envelope, bearing on the back, embossed in blue, the words "Sussex Regiment." Questioned by the jury as to why the pensioner who had recently been associated with the deceased was not produced, the witness said every inquiry had been made but nothing could be learned of his whereabouts. Mr. G. B. Phillips, divisional surgeon of police, entered his protest against being compelled to make his examinations under such serious disadvantages in the so-called mortuary, which was merely a workhouse shed. These remarks were endorsed by the coroner and jury, and the witness proceeded with his evidence. He said the mutilations had been done in a manner which showed anatomical knowledge, and he thought this would have been more clearly indicated if the murderer had not completed his work in haste. Some portions of the abdomen were missing, and the manner in which they had been extracted again showed anatomical knowledge. The inquiry was further postponed.
Application was made to Mr. D'Eyncourt, at the Westminster Police-court, yesterday, by Mrs. Potter, living in Spencer-buildings, who stated that she had reason to fear that the arm found in the Thames on Monday was that of her daughter Emma, seventeen years of age. The girl, who was of rather weak intellect, had been missing from home since Saturday. The applicant had given a description of her daughter to the divisional surgeon, and he said it corresponded with the arm which had been found.
THAMES - BRUTAL ASSAULT - Frank Kersey, 32, was brought up, on remand, charged with violently assaulting Frances Coglin, 32, Agate-street, Canning-town. This was the case in which the prosecutrix had been living with the prisoner. On Monday week he stabbed her in the nose with a bread-knife, gave her two black eyes, and injured her arm. This was not the first time the prisoner had stabbed her, and he had been convicted twenty-two times. - Mr. Lushington committed the accused for trial at the next session of the Criminal Court.
ANOTHER EAST-END OUTRAGE. - A Japanese, named Supiwajan, was charged with cutting and wounding Ellen Norton, 9, Jamaica-passage, Limehouse. - Prosecutrix, whose head was bandaged, said about twelve o'clock on Wednesday night she was in the Coach and Horses beershop, West India Dock-yard, when she heard screams close by the Strangers' Home. She went out, and saw the accused in the act of stabbing her friend, Emily Shepherd. Witness rushed forward, and received the knife into her head. She remembered no more until she was at the station, having her head dressed by a doctor. Witness had been drinking, but had not been in the prisoner's company. - Emily Shepherd said the prisoner came up to her and said to her, "If you go away from me to-night, I will rip you up the same as the woman was served in the Whitechapel-road." She screamed out, when the prosecutrix ran up. The accused then said, "If I can't have her I'll have you," and stabbed Norton in the head with the long-bladed knife produced. He next kicked witness, and afterwards broke a plate-glass window at the Strangers' Home. - Constable 448 K said he heard screams of "Police" and "Murder." On going towards the spot he saw the prisoner jump through the glass panel of the door of the Asiatic Home. He gained admission to the Home, and found prisoner in the yard washing the blood off his hands. Witness took him into custody. Sergeant Brown, 2 K, produced the knife, which was covered with blood. - Mr. G. N. Anderson, surgeon, said prosecutrix had an incised wound in the scalp. The only fear of danger was from erysipelas setting in. - Mr. Lushington committed the prisoner for trial.